diabetes mellitus

Diabetes (diabetes mellitus) are a group of chronic blood glucose (referred to as blood sugar) levels increased metabolic diseases characterized by groups. Main features are high blood sugar, diabetes, polyuria, polydipsia, many food, weight loss, fatigue.
Diabetes is an ancient disease. 400 BC, China's earliest medical book "Yellow Emperor's Canon. Suwen" and "Lingshu" on the records of "Xiaoke card" "Xiaoke disease" of the disease. Han Zhang Zhongjing famous "Golden" Part of the Xiaoke "Sanduo" symptoms have been documented. The early years of the Tang Dynasty, the famous physician Zhen of China's first statement that the urine of patients with diabetes are sweet in the summer and fall, the urine of diabetic patients with strokes sometimes flies.
The world's first to recognize and treat diabetes doctors are famous Chinese Tang Dynasty, Wang Tao. Wang Tao According to his father, suffering from severe thirst, drink volume increased, many people Furuncle sores, urine fruit flavor, and Zhen Yan "old article inspection" one book, So he told his father to try to urinate, which turns out to be sweet. Therefore developed for the treatment of Diabetes program, supplemented by adjust diet, so his father, the disease brought under control. These experiences put him into the the "Waitai Miyao," one book.
"Waitai Miyao" than the 10th century Arab doctor Avicenna's "Medical Code" in about the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes more than 200 years early. AD 600 years after the British doctor Thomas William referred to the patient's urine before, "such as sugar may taste its honey." According to textual research, diabetes for the emperors in ancient nobility of the disease, occur in many obese, many among the rich food.
[Edit this paragraph] Second, what is diabetes
Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases. As people's living standards improve, the aging of the population, as well as an increase in the incidence of obesity, diabetes and the incidence of positive year-on-year rise. Diabetes incidence rate in China reached 2 percent, according to statistics, China has been diagnosed with diabetes up to 40 million and an annual rate of 1,000,000.
Diabetes is the interaction of genetic and environmental factors and diseases caused by clinically to high blood sugar as the main symbol of how common symptoms of drinking, polyuria, weight loss, etc., as well as many food. Diabetes if the lack of effective treatment, can cause physical damage to many systems. Caused by absolute or relative insulin secretion as well as the lack of target tissue cells to insulin sensitivity decreased, caused by protein, fat, water and electrolytes, such as a series of metabolic disorder syndrome, one of a high blood sugar as the main indicator. Typical clinical cases may be polyuria, polydipsia, many food, weight loss, such as performance, that is, "one little more than three" symptoms.

Kidney cancer symptoms

Kidney cancer symptoms
Kidney cancer is a malignant tumor from the renal parenchyma, also known as renal cell carcinoma is the most common kidney tumor, kidney tumor accounting for about 75% ~ 80%, age at onset of many in the 40-year-old to 60 years old, many male in female, about 3 ~ 5:1, on both sides of the kidneys no significant differences in incidence, while incidence are rare.

Kidney cancer from the renal tubular epithelial cells, outer envelope has, bright yellow cut surface, such as tumor hemorrhage is accompanied by red, brown or brown, often cystic degeneration and central necrosis, calcification, if, like a leather . Often seen under the microscope two types, one for clear cell carcinoma, this type of cancer cell differentiation better; the other for the granulosa cell carcinoma, poor differentiation of cancer cells, and higher degree of malignancy.

Renal cancer typical clinical manifestations are hematuria, mass and low back pain, but generally only to the three symptoms of advanced disease when they occur simultaneously.
1. Hematuria: the entire process painless gross hematuria often are sick to get medical treatment early hair symptoms, often without any incentives, nor accompanied by other urinary symptoms. After several hematuria often stop on its own again after the attack, his condition gradually increase.
2. Mass: tumor grow up in the margin of the rib mass hit.
3. Pain: kidney cancer early, often without any pain discomfort due to pain caused by renal cell carcinoma itself accounted for only about 40% of patients. 4. Others: left kidney tumor may be associated with secondary left varicocele, tumor thrombus invasion of inferior vena cava can occur when the lower extremity edema, lesions in patients with distant metastasis, may be symptoms of metastases. About 43% of hypertensive patients is still emerging performance often apparent in patients with advanced weight loss, anemia, cachexia and other weight-loss performance.

1. B-ultrasonic examination: non-invasive and can repeat the examination, can accurately distinguish cystic lesions or solid lesions.
2. CT scanning: CT scanning is not only able to correctly distinguish the nature of lesions are cystic or solid, the more vividly reflects the anatomical structure of the variation, after application of contrast agents are still capable of understanding the situation of renal function, this project has been classified as current renal Cancer preoperative routine examination.
3. Intravenous pyelography: the adoption of excretory urography, not only can see the renal pelvis caused by calyceal pressure situation, but also to understand the function of the contralateral kidney, which decided to remove kidney disease is an important prerequisite.
4. NMR: According to statistics, the application of magnetic resonance imaging for clinical staging of renal cell carcinoma can achieve an accuracy rate of 90%.
5. Renal artery angiography and embolization: renal artery angiography for renal cysts and renal tumors have an important role in the differential. Once the diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma line contrast at the same time that arterial embolization. Will enable the tumor after embolization reduced intraoperative bleeding and to reduce the proliferation of tumor thrombi, surgery may also reduce the degree of difficulty.
6. Laboratory examination: renal cell carcinoma in patients with gross hematuria in a large number of seizures after general exist under a greater or lesser extent in urine red blood cells, some sick urine cytology can be found in the cancerous cells, but relatively low positive rate.
7. Other: cystoscopy attack in hematuria hematuria can see where the side clearance from the option of the application.

1. Surgical treatment: renal cell carcinoma diagnosed by one early trip nephrectomy. To have lung metastasis, the patient generally fair and vital organs can tolerate surgery for resection of primary renal cell carcinoma, and alleviate the condition has a certain advantage.
2. Radiotherapy: Radiotherapy is currently used mainly for renal cell carcinoma patients: ① young patients, a history of short, rapid tumor growth, toxicity symptoms were line preoperative radiotherapy can reduce the tumor size; ② cancer has spread to nearby organs or tumor resection is not complete cases, postoperative radiotherapy can reduce local recurrence; ③ advanced renal cell carcinoma can not be surgically removed, radiation therapy can reduce pain, hematuria and symptoms of tumor toxicity.
3. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy for renal cell carcinoma less effective, combined with chemotherapy may improve the efficacy of chemotherapy in recent years carried out in vitro susceptibility testing, screening of chemotherapeutic drugs may have certain benefits.
4. Hormone therapy: progesterone, testosterone for metastatic renal cell carcinoma can play the role of disease remission.
5. Immunotherapy: BCG, transfer factor, immune RNA, interferon, IL-such as the prevention of recurrence or alleviate the progression of the disease there is some use.

What is kidney cancer

What is kidney cancer
Renal cell carcinoma are the most common adult kidney tumor. Male to female ratio of about 3.5:1, and often happen after the age of 40, sometimes 30 years of age, the individual age of only 20 years old. Male smokers are the cause of kidney cancer, female smokers had nothing to do with them. Male smokers and exposure to cadmium from industrial environment than adult kidney. Coffee may increase the risk of renal cell carcinoma, has nothing to do with coffee consumption. Incidence of renal cell carcinoma tend to have family. Renal cell carcinoma from renal tubular epithelial cells. Gradually grow up and pelvis when invasive hematuria. Such as penetrating the renal capsule can be invasive perirenal fat or adjacent organs. Renal cell carcinoma> 3cm transfer that is easy to happen.

Clinical manifestations

1. Early asymptomatic. Cancer development of the main symptoms of intermittent painless gross hematuria.

2. Cancer is located in lower pole renal or larger, the upper can and the mass.

3. Pain for advanced symptoms, often dull pain waist.

4. Extrarenal manifestations were fever, hypertension, hypercalcemia, many levels, varicocele, cachexia, and tumor metastasis symptoms.

Diagnosis based on

1. Age> 40-year-old male has painless gross hematuria, and renal cell carcinoma should be suspected; 2. Urography showed renal lesions. 3. Ultrasonography showed localized thickening protruding renal, kidney Collection Department of echo shift under pressure, intrarenal hypoechoic round mass. 4.CT scan showed substantial intrarenal lesions accounted bit. 5. Blood alkaline phosphatase increased value.

Treatment principles

1. Early radical nephrectomy;

2. Preoperative renal artery embolization can reduce the bleeding and to prevent the spread of cancer in patients.

3. Such as solitary kidney or bilateral renal cell carcinoma renal cell carcinoma and contralateral renal function well, and should be held in the renal nephron sparing surgery organizations such as partial nephrectomy can be a tumor cut out.

4. Vena cava tumor thrombus in the renal radical excision, the removal of intravenous thrombi or inferior vena cava tumor thrombus removed.

5. Radiotherapy, chemotherapy, immune therapy and hormone treatment are not sure.

Use the principles of

Renal cancer chemotherapy, immune therapy and hormone treatment is not certain that United can be used for more than two kinds of treatment effect is good.

Bone structure

A total of adult bone 206 to form the stent body. According to the different patterns of bone can be divided into long bones, short bones, flat bones and irregular bones. Constitute the main bone by bone, the periosteum wrapped outside, hidden inside the bone marrow.
1. Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a major part of bone. Divided into bone mass and bone density cancellous bone mass density hard at the surface of bone; bone cancellous bone located in the deep.
2. Periosteal periosteal bone are located on the surface (except for the articular surface) close to the thin layer of bone mass density of connective tissue membrane. Its rich nerves, blood vessels and hematopoietic cells, the periosteum of bone fracture repair nutrition and Takeo watch role in properly.
3. Marrow bone marrow bone filled with cancellous bone in the mesh and the bone marrow cavity. Fetal, neonatal bone marrow are red bone marrow with hematopoietic function. With age, bone marrow cavity of the red bone marrow adipose tissue is gradually replaced by bone marrow into yellow, no hematopoietic function. Long bone of spongy bone or flat bone marrow red bone marrow is, and always maintained a hematopoietic function.

1. Calvarial bone composed by 23. Supraorbital margin of the skull to subglottic edge to connect the external ear for the community, from top to bottom is divided into two parts,lower for the cranial surface (Figure 2-4).
(1) brain skull bone from 8 composition, the brain is located in cavity. Cerebral skull is a frontal bone, is located anterior cranial can be divided into the amount of scales, orbital and nasal; parietal bone 2, located in places, between the occipital bone; occipital 1, is located posterior; sphenoid 1, is located cranial at the end of the middle occipital Habitat ago, so named because of the shape of butterflies, the sphenoid bone sub-body, big wings, small wings and wing process; temporal bone 2, around each one, located in sphenoid, parietal bone, occipital bone between the cranial constitute at the end of the sidewall, squamous temporal bone is divided into the Department of the Ministry of mastoid, petrous, drum Department; one ethmoid bone, located under the frontal bone and skull base of the former front, sandwiched between the two eyes, divided into plate, perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone and the labyrinth.
(2) facial skull bone constituted by 15, forming a orbital cavity, nasal cavity, oral and other facial contours. Skull surface, respectively, are plow a bone located between the two nasal cavity, in order to constitute the lower part of nasal septum, the rear of the flat thin plate of bone; a mandible, which is outside the skull, in addition to bone Events can only bone is the largest cranial facial bone; infrahyoid 1, located anterior, the next between the mandible and thyroid cartilage, through the ligament and styloid process of temporal bone connected Hyoid divided into physical, Arcturus, small angle ; Maxilla 2, divided into maxillary body, the amount of process, zygomatic process, palatal, alveolar process, constitute a knock on the wall of the mouth, inferior orbital wall, lateral wall of the nasal cavity; nose 2, located around the jaw, between the amount of penetration for the nasal part of the upper wall; lacrimal bone 2, thin and brittle, it seems the size of fingernails, the former connected to the amount of mandibular protrusion, even after the ethmoid labyrinth of the orbital plane, is located in two of the front wall of intraorbital ; cheekbone 2, in the frontal bone between the maxilla and is located beneath the outer orbital, temporal process and the zygomatic process of temporal bone zygomatic arch from the link, the cheeks are bony protrusions; inferior turbinate 2, attached to the maxillary body nose and face, for the curly thin bony plates; two palatine bone, located in the maxillary palatal process of the sphenoid wing, between the lateral wall of nasal cavity constitutes a part of and the latter part of the hard palate.

2. Trunk bone trunk bone are from 24 vertebrae, one sacrum, coccyx consisting of 1.
(1) according to different parts of vertebrae and is divided into cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral vertebrae (sacrum) and caudal (coccygeal).
1) the structure of vertebra vertebrae vertebral body and vertebral arch has two parts. Vertebral body in the former, Spondylolysis in the latter, both surrounded foramen. Connected to the foramen into the spinal canal called the lumen, containing the spinal cord. Spondylolysis has seven processes: the name behind the spinous process, on both sides of the two process is called transverse process, and under the two pairs of protrusions called on the articular process and the next facet.

3) A total of 12 ribs right. Rib points before and after the client and three body parts. Back-end including the rib head, neck and ribs and other rib tubercle. With the front rib cartilage and sternum connected with the corresponding back-end constitute thoracic joints (

1) shoulder strap by the clavicle and scapula bone composition.
① clavicle at the root of subcutaneous cervical length can be touched. The level of spaces. Within the thick client, and handle the relevant section of the sternum; the outer end flat, with the relevant section of the scapula

Carpal rules for small rather than a short bone. Its name many signs of their respective shapes. From top to bottom with two rows of points. Last row from the export-oriented for the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum and pisiform bone; next row has mostly from outside to inside the angle of bone, small Polyhedrosis bone, capitate bone and hamate bone.
Metacarpal bone metacarpal bone of each piece do not have a special name, by the direction of the thumb to the little finger, respectively, known as I, II, III, IV, V metacarpal. Metacarpal proximal to the end for the middle body, distal to the first. At the end of the first metacarpal was saddle-shaped articular surface for the saddle; the rest are flat articular surface.
(2) lower limb bone from the lower extremities and the composition of free lower limb.
1) lower limb bones composed mainly by the hip. Are located on each side above the hip bone, a piece of the rear ischium, the former composed of the bottom of the pubis.
① hip bone is located on the outside. Bone of the upper part of a wide flat thin, called iliac wing. Wing upper edge thickening, called iliac crest. Iliac crest in front of protrusions called anterior superior iliac spine, below the protrusions called anterior iliac spine.

Height and bone

A person's height is determined by the skeleton, bone growth and development well, build it tall; bone growth and development of faults, will lead to growth retardation, short stature is it.

In the skeletal system, the relationship with the person's height is the biggest lower limb long bones and vertebrae, especially in lower extremity long bone is even more important.

Limb long bones mainly by the backbone, such as bones and metaphyseal component parts. Metaphysis between the backbone and has a layer of cartilage, called epiphyseal plates (or cartilage). Epiphyseal cartilage, whose central part of the first ossification, ossification center said. In child growth and development of the whole process, the bone growth continued in the long bones at both ends of the ossification centers and epiphyseal cartilage plate, and thus gradually increase the length of bone, also with the growth in height. By the late youth 17 to 20 years old, and epiphyseal cartilage gradually began to integration, then started to slow down bone growth. Until the epiphyseal cartilage plate and fully integrated together, stop the growth of long bones, and will no longer increase height. This shows that the person's height, bone growth and epiphyseal end of long bone and cartilage is most closely related.

Congenital diseases, severe malnutrition, severe lack of vitamin D, metaphyseal dysplasia and achondroplasia and other bone metabolic disease, may impede the growth of bones and long bone development side would give rise to children's bone growth obstacles, and ultimately emergence of short stature.

About urine information

Human body are all kinds of urine from the kidney excretion of metabolic waste out, and its composition can affect urine color and transparency. Turbid urine can be caused by disease, or it may be a physiological phenomenon, be careful to observe changes in the process of urine be judged.

(1) early discharge clarified, placed after the turbidity: normal urine is to clarify when in the fresh transparent, color light yellow or colorless. However, when the urine does not put a period after a long time, urine and various salts (for example, urate, phosphate, carbonate, etc.) will be out by crystallization, so that the next part of urine was turbid and white. This is a physiological phenomenon rather than pathological.

Another case, the early discharge of urine to clarify that a little stay, found in urine at the end there are some small blackish-brown sand, it was vividly called the roe (eggs)-like small grains of sand, which is a uric acid crystals, often are a large number of patients suffering from gout uric acid in the urine discharged from the crystallization of precipitation.

(2) from turbidity

① chyluria: First discharge of urine such as milky white as milk, and sometimes there are small clots gel, which was particularly prevalent in the lymphatic system diseases.

② pyuria: When urine mixed with a large number of leukocytes and inflammatory debris organizations, the entire urine was turbid white pollution. This is mostly caused by bacterial infection, often accompanied by frequent urination has more obvious, symptoms such as urgency.

(3) voiding clarify, the last few drops of urine for turbidity: this phenomenon only in the male voiding bladder muscle contraction, particularly in the end of urination, easy to "affect" or squeeze into the prostate and seminal vesicle, prostate fluid secretion and thus sperm has also been squeezed out a little bit, a few drops of urine after the liquid is turbid urine, prostatic fluid and semen mixture. This phenomenon, most are physical in nature, especially after the excitement in the male-prone. But there are also a small part is due to the prostate or seminal vesicle has inflammation, more easily contracted bladder and bowel, discharge a small amount of secretions, which are sick, need to be further confirmed.

Eye protection

Video terminal syndrome, refers to as a result of long-term computer or computer monitor screen to reduce eye movement blink, tears well should not uniformly distributed in the ocular surface, resulting in dry eye, eye Shibuya, fatigue, chronic conjunctivitis and other eye symptoms, These symptoms may also be a dry eye.
With an Eye to eye a long time the harm is great, for example, many people say the time to visit, I thought I watch TV a long time the eyes will be special Shibuya, in particular, do sometimes have a headache, eye pain condition, things look very fuzzy, prolonged use of computers, playing electronic games or watching TV will be after the regular eye fatigue, dryness, itching, burning sensation, photophobia and other problems, so that the Office of Family impossible.
Visual environment as a result of changes due to long time watching TV, watch the computer caused by "video terminal syndrome" has become more and more young people the main reason for decline in vision. Ophthalmologists in the clinical treatment has found that as a result of visual changes in the environment, "video terminal syndrome" will substantially increase the occurrence.
As the computer screen by a small fluorescent dots, the eyes have to constantly adjust the focal length in order to ensure a clear visual objects, time is too long, eye muscle fatigue would be too. At the same time, watching the screen, the blinking number will be reduced 10%, a decrease of tear output; and prolonged eye exposure to the air, so that excessive water evaporation, resulting in dry eye discomfort, even serious injury in the cornea. Air-conditioned office environment, frequent use of lead water to accelerate the tears were drying.
Prevention of computer terminals syndrome, first of all need to note the following:
Maintain the computer screen with the eye distance of 50 ~ 60 cm; equipped with the exclusive use of the computer chair, adjust the seat height and backrest good angle; screen located at the geometric center, as the plane following the best, but in 15-degree angle or less; the most important point is a the duration of the use of computers not too long, at intervals of 50 minutes rest for 10 minutes.
Should be particular emphasis on the importance of regular breaks, this is to prevent eyestrain the most effective way, preferably at intervals of one hour or so stand up and walk to the window while Yuanwang. Not only for the eyes, good health is also a great benefit. Can also make some eye drops to maintain lubrication of the eye drops. For driving, reading and other visual fatigue caused by eye irritation, can also be used from time to time to rest approach to regulation.

Maintenance of the eye

Evenly apart from nutrition, the multi-eat food containing vitamin is very important. In addition, proteins contain and regulate the function of the eye muscles.
Importantly, try not to stay up all night, if the symptoms of eyestrain can also use tea in place of eyedrops to wash the eyes.
Hi! Miss two, and you have just heard that "eye wash", how the two ladies of "eye wash" is also interested in it?
You do not speak no one to you as dumb!

Refrain from excessive use of eyes, more intake of protein and vitamin rich food
In the excessive use of eyes to read books, television and computer people, more and more people feel eyestrain. Such as eye pain, blurred vision, eyes bloodshot, eye irritation, tears streaming eyes, are symptoms of eyestrain. Sometimes even have headaches, dizziness, shoulder stiffness, nausea and other symptoms.
Usual intake of the eyes should be fully helpful vitamins A, B1, B2, C, and pay attention to nutritional balance. Vitamins for the treatment of dry eye are particularly effective, can be given the necessary nutrition eyes. Containing vitamin A-rich foods has lamprey, liver, cheese, cream, egg yolk, spinach, carrots, parsley and so on.
Regulation, we should reinforce our eye muscles, must be multi-containing amino acid intake (protein) of food, such food also has to make the eyes more beautiful results.
Excessive fatigue and lack of sleep are the reasons causing eyestrain. Eyes and body to rest of course are very important.
Should not eat food
Garlic bad for the eyes, chocolate can cause the eyes bloodshot, should avoid eating

Fill a tooth

If suffering from dental caries should be repaired as early as possible, because after cavities can be repaired to prevent the development of caries lesions, as soon as possible to restore the function of teeth, and maintain the integrity of the dentition.

Without timely treatment, lesions will be more and more, from shallow to deep caries caries development, such as sweet and sour to hot and cold food to stimulate the sensitive; when the damage reached the pulp, causing pulpitis, at this time will be very severe toothache ; When the lesion further development, can cause periapical inflammation and periapical abscess, osteomyelitis and even jaw, missing teeth. Carious or missing teeth can affect chewing and increase gastrointestinal burden, thereby affecting their health. Moreover, dental caries, there are a lot of bacteria and pus, as one potential lesions, when the body resistance to decline, it can cause sepsis or bacteremia. The fillings can be terminated so that the occurrence of these diseases and development, so as soon as possible should be suffering from dental caries.

In addition, because clinical manifestations of dental caries, caries form is divided into primary and secondary caries. And acute dental caries is a primary caries, it changes faster progress. In children or young people, the tooth tissue lesions color light, soft and moist texture, pulp tissue as a result of lesions quickly and with little or no formation of reparative dentin, so vulnerable to infection and disease occurred in the pulp. At the same time, children suffer from dental caries chewing food hinder, inhibit the digestion and absorption of nutrients, due to a decline in chewing ability, which stimulate jaw growth and development of the role of decline. In the face and neck radiotherapy patients and suffering from homes Green's syndrome patients and due to other causes patients to reduce saliva secretion, and its rapid caries development, and often involved the majority of teeth, known as the fierce onset of caries. For those suffering from acute dental caries and caries-meng-onset patients, but dental treatment as soon as possible in order to prevent the rapid development of caries.

Related Links 3: Why should not fill a tooth and sometimes a complete

Why should not fill a tooth and sometimes a complete people asked the doctors to fill a tooth, they hope to fill a good time. Shallow caries, in caries and some patients with deep caries, carious organizations to do, no subjective symptoms, it is can be implemented immediately filling law. However, patients with deep caries, in the past have subjective symptoms, when to do carious Organization, with or without spontaneous pain delayed filling method should be implemented, in which case fill a tooth can not be completed once.

Dental care

DIY effects if not ideal, you can turn to professionals, to professional dental clinic or hospital to allow doctors to help you "brush" - This is the ultrasonic scaling. Scaling is a good means of dental care as well as the treatment of periodontal disease the primary measures, through regular scaling, not only on the elimination of dental plaque and calculus, so that to maintain a healthy periodontal tissue.

Prevention and treatment of periodontal disease, scaling was not easy to easy to find small dental noticeable, such as the relatively hidden caries, early detection so as to achieve the purpose of early treatment. Through to the teeth "bath", to the teeth surface and even deep cracks in the teeth of dirt are removed, this was the normal white color of the teeth will be able to resume.

Good oral hygiene habits, and about the need for a thorough cleaning once a year; poor oral hygiene, and six months on the need for scaling; people who have periodontal disease, periodontal disease has not yet under control in the stage, a 3-month wash teeth have helped to control the disease.

Wallet shrinkage: a few hundred dollars

Beautiful degrees:

Misery Index: 1

Have a small number of people in scaling, the teeth sensitive to hot and cold have flabby phenomenon, this is because after the removal of teeth, so that the results of the root exposed. In this case even more to maintain oral hygiene, for example, to switch to warm water when brushing their teeth, usually sensitive to the phenomenon will disappear soon.

Applies to dental status: Has calculus, smoke stains, gingival bleeding, dental, etc. color yellow teeth.

Advantages: not only the maintenance of oral hygiene, teeth can also remove surface dirt, so that the restoration of the natural color of teeth.

Disadvantages: Can not remove the internal teeth of the pigment, not the true meaning of making teeth white.

>> GH reminded:

1. More in-depth scaling often lead to damaged gums bleeding, caused bacteremia, so the oral preoperative disinfection is very important. Ultrasonic scaling is the scaling of the main procedures, using a scaling machine handle, it is very important to disinfect, in the absence of high-temperature disinfection and sterilization, it was entirely possible to pathogens through repeated use of the scaling machine handle the spread from one patient to another a patient, scaling HIV infection is not hearsay "alarmist." Therefore, the scaling must choose formal, large-scale clinics or hospitals.

2. Scaling should be less attention to smoking, cutting non-ferrous beverage, and with the continued whitening whitening toothpaste may be the effect of the extension of white.

Misery index: 1.5. Almost not hurt, but because every day to wear more than one hours time, with a total feeling of teeth on something a bit sad because of the feeling.

Applies to dental status: smoking, drinking coffee, chewing betel nut, etc., causing discolored teeth, black and mild pigment teeth, enamel hypoplasia, as well as age-induced changes in tooth enamel color yellow.

Advantages: easy to operate, simple, more obvious effects.

Disadvantages: on the moderate to severe tetracycline teeth whitening dental fluorosis and other effects in general, for sensitive teeth easily lead to discomfort.

Heart disease

Heart disease is the general term for heart disease, including rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, coronary heart disease, myocarditis and other heart disease.

Common heart disease are: hypertensive heart disease - high blood pressure caused by the long-term; coronary heart disease - caused by coronary artery disease occurs; rheumatic heart disease-A hemolytic streptococcus cause; congenital heart disease - congenital heart malformation.

Generated causes heart disease: obesity (more than 20% of ideal body weight and above) affect the blood easy to transport and increase the burden on the heart; often tense emotional life; smoking, drinking excessive; food Eating too much fat; by other diseases, such as: hypertension, diabetes, hardening of the arteries, syphilis, rheumatic fever, chronic respiratory diseases; genetic diseases or pregnancy result of fetal cardiac malformation.

Heart disease symptoms: difficulty breathing, shortness of breath; accelerated heartbeat, palpitations; frail, easily dizziness; loss of appetite, stomach discomfort; edema; chest pain (with the symptoms, the need for a speedy medical treatment); arrhythmia.

Heart disease prevention and care: regular health check-ups, such as blood pressure, ECG and so on. If early treatment of heart disease should avoid deterioration; if high blood pressure, diabetes and so should be early treatment; a balanced diet, not overeating; appropriate exercise, not too Labor, in order to avoid obesity; to give up smoking, alcohol; to maintain the spirit of quiet, rest and sleep; the lifting of the psychological pressure, to avoid nervousness.

The causes of heart disease: heart organ can be divided into a variety of diseases, such as coronary heart disease, heart disease leakage, heart muscle weakness, abnormal heart valves activities and so on. However, because heart disease is the most common, so ordinary people will be called the Pan - for heart disease. heart disease is a result of dirty cholesterol on the artery wall block, forming a blood clot, and so that the blood supply to the heart was severely reduced, resulting in angina, myocardial tissue of instability arising from electrical pulse. If the supply part of blood to the heart of a complete halt, the part will not be able to get oxygen and which maintain the normal operation of nutrients, causing irreparable harm, or even lead to death.