The symptoms and treatment of high blood pressure

Hypertension is the world's most common cardiovascular disease, but also one of the largest epidemics, often caused by heart, brain, kidney and other organs of the complications of serious harm to human health and therefore to increase awareness of hypertension, right early prevention and timely treatment extremely important. Hypertension is a long-term course of disease. Generally considered to be due to strong, repeated, long-term external stimuli, resulting in cortical dysfunction, loss of normal regulation of blood vessels and disease.

Symptoms of Hypertension

The symptoms of hypertension are often a result of people, due to illness period to another. Asymptomatic or symptoms of early multi-obvious, even in the physical examination or for other reasons, blood pressure was found. The extent of their symptoms and high blood pressure do not have the same relationship, which may be related to neurological disorders related to advanced. Some people blood pressure is not too high, but a lot of the symptoms, while others although a high blood pressure in some patients, but the symptoms of obvious, common symptoms include:

1. Dizziness: Dizziness is most common symptoms of high blood pressure. Some are one-off nature, often from a sudden squatting, or immediately appear, some are ongoing. Dizziness is a major pain the patient is located, its head, there is continuous dull discomfort, a serious impediment to thinking, affecting work, loss of interest in things around, when there is hypertensive crisis, or vertebral - basilar artery insufficiency, may presented with similar symptoms of vertigo inner ear.

2. Headache: Headaches are also common symptoms of high blood pressure, mostly for persistent dull pain or pulsatile pain, and even burst-like pain. Often occurs in the morning wake up, get up gradually reduce activities and meals. Pain in multiple sites on both sides of the forehead and the back of the head temple.

3. Irritability, palpitations, insomnia: patients with hypertension more than impatient temperament, failing sensitive and excitable. Heart palpitations, insomnia more common, insomnia, difficulty falling asleep or woke too early, mostly, sleep is not real, nightmares diverse, easy to wake up. This cortex dysfunction and autonomic dysfunction related to.

4. Can not concentrate, memory loss: Early more obvious, but with the development of more severe disease. Because quite upsetting, Guchang become a catalyst in one of the reasons treatment of patients, showing for the attention of easily dispersed, recent memory impairment, and often difficult to remember a recent thing, right things in the past, such as childhood memories of things that .

5. Limb numbness: Frequently Asked fingers, toes and numbness, or skin, such as flu or mosquitoes line item back muscle tension, soreness. Some patients often feel their fingers are not agile. After proper treatment usually can be turned around, but if the numbness more stubborn, lasted longer, but also appeared in a fixed body, accompanied by limb weakness, cramps, rebound tenderness, should promptly to the hospital for treatment, prevention of stroke onset.

6. Hemorrhage: A relatively rare. Because high blood pressure can be caused by arterial sclerosis, so that decreased blood vessel elasticity, brittleness increased, so easy to hemorrhage. Among them, epistaxis more common, followed by conjunctival hemorrhage, retinal hemorrhage, cerebral hemorrhage, according to statistics, a large number of patients with nasal bleeding, about 80% suffer from high blood pressure.

Treatment of Hypertension

First, the general treatment of high blood pressure

Note that work and rest, maintaining adequate sleep, to participate in whatever work, manual labor, and physical exercise. Diet adjusted to low salt, low animal fat diet is appropriate, and to avoid into cholesterol-rich food. Proper control of food intake, obesity, and total calories, appropriate weight, not smoke.

Pain during Pregnancy

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Symptoms of Arthritis

Arthritis is a common chronic diseases, the most common are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis are two kinds of arthritis is estimated that China's current 100 million or more, and the number is growing. According to statistics, half of people over the age of 50 suffer from osteoarthritis; 65 people over the age of 90% of the women and 80% of men suffering from osteoarthritis.

Osteoarthritis is a kind of movable joints of non-inflammatory lesions, it is characterized by degradation of articular cartilage and joint surfaces and the edge of new bone formation. This disease is also called degenerative joint disease.

Cause of cough

Cough caused by only two reasons, first is the upper respiratory tract inflammation caused by coughing, in order to laryngitis majority, and the second is a cough caused by lower respiratory tract, including bronchitis and pneumonia, etc.

Cough in children, mostly pre-flu symptoms, associated with symptoms or complications like. Some babies appear first pharyngeal itching, sore throat, cough, 23 days after the fever, stuffy nose, headache and so on, then cough became the first symptom of a cold.

Cold Symptoms

Influenza, commonly known as "cold" is caused by a variety of respiratory virus diseases, of which 30% -50% of the nose of a serotype virus. Although the common cold-prone in the early winter, but in any season, such as spring, summer, may also occur in different seasons of the pathogenicity of influenza virus is not exactly the same. Distribution of influenza cases are sporadic and non-epidemic bacterial infection often easy to merge. Acute onset than the common cold, early symptoms of dry throat itching or burning sensation, sneezing, stuffy nose, runny nose, runny nose started to water samples; may be accompanied by pharyngodynia; generally no fever and systemic symptoms, or only low-grade fever, headache. In general by 5 to 7 days.

Differential diagnosis
(A) slow-onset respiratory tract infection, symptoms are relatively light, and no obvious symptoms of poisoning. And immunofluorescence serology tests, such as can be clearly diagnosed.
(B) meningeal encephalitis encephalitis (ECM) the early symptoms of meningitis are often flu-like, but obviously the seasonal meningitis, mostly children. Early severe headache, meningeal irritation symptoms, blood, the lips, such as herpes and influenza can identify with. Clear diagnosis of cerebrospinal fluid examination.
(C) The legionnaire's disease of the disease was particularly prevalent in the summer and autumn, clinically manifested as severe pneumonia, increased WBC, and liver and kidney complications, but the light flu-like cases. Erythromycin, rifampin and gentamicin and other antibiotics effective against the disease, contribute to etiology inspection confirmed.
(D) Mycoplasma pneumonia Mycoplasma pneumonia with primary viral pneumonia is similar to the X-ray findings, but the former is less severe diseases, cold agglutinin test and Streptococcus MG agglutination test may be positive.

Cold after the decline of human resistance, bacteria will often take advantage of. So, when a cold few days later, the fever is still not to reclaim, it should be noted that a mixture of bacterial infection, treatment should be to the hospital in time to prevent the into bronchitis.
Cold symptoms and very similar to the beginning of many diseases, but utterly different, and the effect can not be taken lightly.
If the fever, there are severe nausea, vomiting and recurrent, should be suspected brain lesions (such as meningitis, etc.) response. If the fever, do not want to eat greasy food, and there is nausea, vomiting and other symptoms, it should be suspected to be the reaction of infectious hepatitis.
Influenza virus at the time, and sometimes can cause myocarditis, the symptoms are often in the cold after a week, there are flustered, chest tightness, shortness of breath, especially in fast heartbeat, more than 100 times a minute. Irregular heartbeat, it should be timely to go to the hospital for treatment.

Lung Cancer

Cancer of the lung, like all cancers, results from an abnormality in the body's basic unit of life, the cell. Normally, the body maintains a system of checks and balances on cell growth so that cells divide to produce new cells only when needed. Disruption of this system of checks and balances on cell growth results in an uncontrolled division and proliferation of cells that eventually forms a mass known as a tumor.

Symptoms of metastatic lung tumors depend on the location and size. About 30%-40% of people with lung cancer have some symptoms or signs of metastatic disease.

Lung cancer most often spreads to the liver, the adrenal glands, the bones, and the brain.

Metastatic lung cancer in the liver usually does not cause symptoms, at least by the time of diagnosis.

Metastatic lung cancer in the adrenal glands also typically causes no symptoms by the time of diagnosis.
Radiation therapy uses high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells. The radiation can be delivered by a machine that directs the high-energy rays towards your cancer, or by a small radioactive pellet that gets implanted in or near the tumour.

Don't' smoke. If you smoke, quit: Choosing not to smoke is the very best way to prevent lung cancer. If you do smoke, quit. If you've tried to quit and it didn't work, try again. As soon as you quit smoking, your risk or lung cancer goes down. The sooner you quit, the lower your risk.

Lung health

Respiratory function to strengthen the lungs, oxygen can improve the body, improve immunity. "Breathing meditation" is a good exercise lung health.

Breathing meditation concrete steps are as follows: to be on his hands flat on the knees, waist upright, light eyes closed. First from the nasal breathing slowly, so that the lower lung full of air, gently at the same time to summon the lower abdomen, and there is a conscious idea of inhalation and the air has reached the next accumulation of the abdomen (that is, a sense of gas). In the inspiratory process, because of thoracic lift up, move down the diaphragm, chest inflated, so that gas is up to the upper part of the lung, and on the brink of expansion to the most. This process takes about 5,6 seconds.

To maintain a sense of air and then 5 seconds (through practice to achieve 10 seconds or 10 seconds or more), so that the lungs have time to absorb all the oxygen.

Then slowly exhaled, ribs and chest and gradually return to its original location. At the beginning of the course of the next inspiratory time being until the 23 seconds pause, and then re-breathing. Repeated 10 times such a motion can be. As long as the exercises every day, and gradually develop the habit on a regular basis, to enhance respiratory function in the lungs.

"Breathing meditation" are from my country of ancient medicine, guided meditation and health, such as extracted from the reactive power. Through posture adjustment, breathing exercises, physical and mental relaxation, attention and imagination of concentration, the effect of health care received. This is because in the process of deep breathing, exercise the lungs. Chinese medicine has long told us, "all gas all belong to the lung, the lung is the origin of gas." At the same time, breathing meditation can improve heart function of the gastrointestinal tract is also a very good massage.

Symptoms of bronchitis

Bronchitis is a virus or bacterial infection, physical, chemical or allergic reactions such as stimulation of bronchial mucosal damage caused by inflammation, often occurred in the cold season or when sudden changes in temperature. Acute bronchitis in general more acute onset, short duration, 1-3 weeks at many a turn for the better, evolving into chronic bronchitis. Many chronic bronchitis in the elderly hair, prevalence rate of over 50 years of age to 10-15%, but also because of infection or infections are caused. Clinical manifestations were more than two years in a row, continuing for more than three months each year cough, sputum or asthma situation. Mild early symptoms, many attacks in the winter, spring beyond reach remission after the late increase inflammation, symptoms of long years of existence, regardless of the season. Chronic bronchitis by the disease can be divided into three phases:
1, acute attack period: refer to appear in a week or mucous purulent purulent sputum, increased sputum volume, or fever accompanied by inflammation, such as performance or "cough" "sputum" "breath" and other symptoms exacerbated by any of the obvious.
2, chronic delayed transfer: refers to a different degree of "cough, sputum, wheezing" persistent symptoms for more than a month.
3, clinical remission: After treatment, clinical remission, the symptoms disappeared, or sometimes a small amount of mild cough sputum, maintaining more than two months.
Acute bronchitis incidence was particularly prevalent in the cold season, because cold and fatigue can weaken the respiratory function of the physiological defense to have the opportunity to develop infection. Most healthy adults by adenovirus or influenza virus, children with respiratory syncytial virus or parainfluenza virus found. After virus infection of alveolar macrophages inhibited phagocytosis and the vitality of ciliated cells, the bacterial invasion of bronchial has the opportunity to cause acute bronchitis. At the same time, cold air, dust, gas, etc. to stimulate the physical, chemical stimulation is also easy to cause the disease. Acute bronchitis is the trachea, bronchial mucosal hyperemia, edema, mucus gland hypertrophy, increased secretions, after rest and medication, the inflammation subsided, the trachea, bronchial mucosal structure and function return to normal.
The incidence of chronic bronchitis complicated factors, according to the cause at home and abroad to investigate and experiment control studies suggest that long-term by a number of factors and pathogenic interactions, these factors include: infection, physical and chemical stimuli, meteorological factors, allergy and immune function decreased.
1. infection: chronic bronchitis are caused by a common cause of essential. Bronchitis virus since the beginning of many who suffered from respiratory tract infection caused by these viruses invasive bronchial epithelial cells and cilia, including a large number of breeding, mucosal damage and epithelial cells to lose their protective effect, which makes the original existence of bacteria in the respiratory tract such as influenza, Anopheles blood bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae have a pathogenic role.
2. the physical, chemical stimulation: Long-term smoking and air by chemical poisons, dust or harmful industrial waste gas pollution, there is stimulation of the respiratory mucosa, damaging the mucous membrane of normal cleaning and defensive capabilities, it will give rise to chronic bronchitis. According to census statistics, the long-term smokers than non-smokers suffering from the disease of chronic bronchitis, a high rate of 2.8 times the amount of smoking the greater the incidence rate.
3. meteorological factors: the cold for chronic bronchitis an important incentive to attack. Lot of elderly patients with chronic bronchitis incidence in the winter, mainly because the cold can stimulate the cilia movement weakened tracheal spasm, capillary contraction, affecting blood circulation to reduce local resistance and vulnerability to infection. In addition, the cold so that mucous gland secretion, inhalation of gas less than the wet, sticky sputum, respiratory poor, but also a predisposing factor in chronic bronchitis.
4. allergy: in particular, chronic asthmatic bronchitis and allergies are closely related morbidity. Such as dust, dust mites, fungi, parasites, pollen allergies and chemical gas would allow the respiratory mucosa edema, hyperemia and the occurrence of bronchospasm cough and wheezing.
5. decreased immune function: the disease of the elderly over the age of 50 the high incidence of respiratory tract and the elderly in this local immune defense and the relationship must have. Elderly sex hormones adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion and reduced respiratory mucosal atrophy, reduced reserve capacity of lung tissue, lung tissue decreased flexibility. These are easily lead to chronic bronchitis and recurrent reasons.

Throat cancer treatment

Throat cancer treatment

Throat cancer - Symptoms

A, a sore throat - in true laryngeal vocal cords happen most often affect the pronunciation, the end of violations of hypopharyngeal throat situation when they have a sore throat.

B, abnormal sense of throat - especially unilateral hypopharyngeal often abnormal sense of throat.

E, swallowing difficult - Hypopharyngeal Cancer hinder continued up through the food.

F, dyspnea - throat tumor is too large because of airway obstruction.

G, cervical lymph nodes - lymph node metastasis at the time happened.

H, the other - such as Momin's weight loss, loss of appetite.

Throat cancer - treatment

The most important thing is early diagnosis of early treatment, larynx first and second phases of an acceptable local radiation therapy or laser excision, can be natural hair after the third, four would accept a greater range of surgery or total laryngectomy, The latter need to speak by artificial audible signal device. five-year survival rate from the first to Phase IV, respectively, 75%, 60%, 48%, 40% or so.

Pharyngeal cancer was not obvious because of the early symptoms so easy for the early detection of delays and late violations of the throat can only be removed when the larynx, lymphatic Furthermore Department therefore rich, easy to have the neck or distant metastasis, poor prognosis of laryngeal cancer than the five-year survival rate of about 15-30%.

Throat cancer is nasopharyngeal carcinoma, oropharyngeal cancer, larynx general term. Hypopharyngeal hypopharynx is also called, hypopharyngeal piriform many nest in hair, followed by the posterior wall of the hypopharynx. Radiotherapy treatment, surgery alone. Add operation radiotherapy. chemotherapy and immune therapy. radiotherapy of head and neck will affect the function of salivary glands to reduce the salivary gland secretion. when combined with radiotherapy have a swelling of the tissue reaction. will happen dysphagia, dry mouth symptoms. usually continue to increase after treatment with some symptomatic drugs can be partially alleviated.

Throat cancer symptoms

Hoarseness are the most of early laryngeal cancer is the most common signal. The majority of laryngeal cancer cases originating in the vocal cords, that is a very small tumor of the vocal cords will also abnormal vocal cord vibration and cause hoarseness. If it is found in patients with unexplained hoarseness, symptoms continued for more than three weeks and no signs of getting better, should go to hospital for medical treatment and timely manner has to do a careful ear, nose and throat expert throat endoscopy. Patients and health practitioners can not treat the matter lightly because of the disease was not obvious and delay diagnosis and treatment.

Ear pain: When developed to a certain degree of laryngeal and pharyngeal ulcers and severe stomach inflammation produced may cause nerve pain reflex. Early Cancer of the vocal cords would not normally have a pain reflex. Pain reflex occurred mainly at advanced supraglottic tumor patients. The most common symptoms manifested in the ipsilateral inner ear pain.

Have foreign body sensation in the throat or swallowing pain: These symptoms are supraglottic cancer early symptoms, but the origin of the tumor on the vocal cords to the mid-and late once the development will also have a foreign body sensation in the throat or swallowing pain. This type of symptoms often start at the disease are not obvious, so patients and doctors are more likely to be ignored.

Sputum with blood: because of substantial non-normal with tumor neovascularization, the patient usually will find that after coughing mucus or sputum in a bloodshot. Such symptoms were seen mainly in supraglottic, subglottic type of advanced tumor patients and patients with vocal cord tumor, early vocal cord hemorrhage Cancer does not produce a general phenomenon.

Dyspnea: When the tumor at primary site and a serious deterioration in the size of the increase will directly affect the respiratory airway obstruction or secretions from the trachea and thus lead to poor dyspnea. This generally only imagine will happen in advanced laryngeal.

These are the more common symptoms of throat cancer. It should be noted that not all such symptoms are caused by the larynx. Some benign lesions, such as vocal cord polyps, laryngitis, laryngeal papilloma and other diseases also have similar symptoms. But in any case, once the site of throat discomfort, doctors and patients of these diseases should not be taken lightly.

Skin cancer treatment

Incidence of skin cancer is one of the highest rates of cancer, the current poor overall efficacy, but also give patients the course of treatment often cause great suffering and economic burden, I brought in a current treatment of skin cancer, new technologies -- - photodynamic therapy, has successfully treated many patients with skin cancer, the introduction of this new technology, for skin cancer patients is undoubtedly the Gospel of life.
5 - Aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy, or photodynamic therapy Ira (ALA-PDT), is a combined application of 5 - Aminolevulinic acid and the corresponding light source, photodynamic reaction through selective destruction of new lesions technology. Its main mechanism is based on light, photosensitizer and oxygen based on the interaction of a new disease treatment. Can also be said that non-surgical treatment of knife. Treatment process is very simple. Damage to the skin cancer called coated layer 5 - Aminolevulinic Acid of the photosensitizer, a few hours later with a specific red light irradiation for 20 minutes, the patient can go home. After a few general treatment, tumor lesions will be cleared off their own, the wound is superficial, generally will not form a scar.
In addition to skin cancer, the photodynamic therapy can also be used in the treatment of condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris and acne vulgaris and other skin disorders.

Skin cancer

Skin cancer is very rare. In China, the UN body skin cancer malignant eleventh place. It is precisely because people paid little attention to it, even though skin cancer at a good growth on exposed skin, at present, the early diagnosis of skin cancer rate is still low. The elderly may be some pre-cancerous skin's performance to one of senile keratosis tumor, mostly white spot disease, and some chronic skin diseases, such as burns or post-traumatic keloid, chronic skin Yan, older skin warts, chronic fistula or sinus, radiation ulcer, etc., if after formal treatment, these lesions instead of increasing, or rupture, hardening, thickening, coloring deepened hyperkeratosis and even bleeding, which should guard against skin cancer may have. In short, if the skin on the elderly, there has been painless nodules, hard texture, edge swell to go to the specialist hospital for examination, to exclude possible skin cancer.

Treatment and prevention of gallstones

Treatment and prevention of gallstones

Treatment and prevention of gallstones may, by drugs (dissolved stones), surgery (stones removed) or diet therapy (control of the formation of gallstones) and the latest ultrasound shock method to remove stones.

Basically, the absence of symptoms does not cause illness in most health should be no need to consider surgical treatment, if complications occur or when in serious condition. Gallbladder should be removed in order to avoid life-threatening.

People eat more and better, making gallstones can be easily ridden without consciously. People should pay attention to normal diet, limiting animal fat intake and maintain body weight. More important is to do regular health checks. Gallbladder X-ray diagnosis of gallstones are the most useful method, the current abdominal ultrasound are the most commonly used methods and painless, using sound wave echoes to determine whether reflex stones in order to achieve the purpose of early treatment.

Because of gallstones and is closely related to physical fitness and diet, if you consciously are suffering from high-risk groups or westernized diet enthusiasts. Once the symptoms have to be vigilant. Cholelithiasis daily Daoqin corresponding patterns for the daily life of the self-review is a healthy first step.

Please note the following living norms:

1. To maintain ideal body weight.
2. To maintain the habit of exercise.
3. Attention to diet, health and safety, regular quantitative.
4. The absolute prohibition of overeating.
5. In order to avoid prolonged sitting work.
6. To avoid too much fatigue.
7.束紧thoracoabdominal not wearing the tights material.
8. If constipation symptoms, have to active treatment.

Cholelithiasis diet therapy

1. Uptake of many high-fiber foods, such as vegetables, fruits, grains completely.
2. Limiting cholesterol intake. Definitely do not eat offal, egg yolk, such as cholesterol-rich food.
3. Many vitamin K, such as: spinach, broccoli and others have rich content.
4. Fasting easy to produce gas in food, such as: potato, sweet potato, beans, onion, radish, soft drinks, as well as acidic fruit juices, coffee, cocoa and so on.
5. Is limited to drinking skimmed milk.
6. Eat more rich in vitamin A, yellow-green vegetables.
7. Cooking food using less frying, deep-frying, many mining cook, stew, steamed manner.
8. Fasting fat content of many of the broth and mayonnaise.
9. Tastes light as far as possible, there should be moderation seasonings.
10. Avoid eating processed foods and high sugar food.

Australia's lecithin capsules are made of natural animal and plant health care products, not only to break down the absorption of cholesterol, liquefied bile cholesterol, prevent and dissolve gallstones but also for the clearance of vascular, liver protection, diabetes, Alzheimer's, beauty care, etc. have good health care role.

Surgical treatment of gastric cancer

Surgical treatment of gastric cancer

So far the treatment of gastric cancer, the effect is still not satisfied. This regard because of gastric cancer is unclear reasons, should not be in its prior to the onset of prevention; on the other hand, the time of diagnosis in most cases are already in advanced patients, efficacy of the natural poor. Therefore improve the early diagnosis of gastric cancer is still the key to treatment.

First, surgical treatment

Currently the main method of treatment of gastric cancer and is also the only possible cure for a means of advanced gastric cancer. Therefore, surgical treatment of gastric cancer should take a positive attitude, as long as the general condition of patients without specific允可distant metastasis and should be implemented laparotomy.

(1) Choose a variety of operations

1. Radical excision

Also known as curative resection. The upcoming primary gastric lesions, together with some of these bodies and their corresponding regional lymph nodes be removed, any residual non-clinical cancer tissues. Also because of the scope of regional lymph node dissection are different, while divided into four different radical mastectomy: the first leg is not totally removed lymph nodes, said R. Operation: The first stop for the R1 to remove lymph node surgery, to remove all the same the second leg or the third leg of the lymphatic, called R2, or R3 operation, but also the extent of lymph node metastasis in accordance with the scope of the relationship between lymph node dissection, the distinction between absolute and relative radical for two kinds of radical, absolutely radical lymphadenectomy refers to the first stop beyond the metastatic lymph nodes above the first leg such as lymph node metastasis, the purposes of R2 or R3 radical, namely, that the absolute cure. Such as R1 only surgery, although no clinical residual metastatic lymph nodes, but only think is relatively radical.

General radical gastrectomy scope should include the original lesions, including proximal or distal stomach of the 2 / 3 ~ 3 / 4, all the size of the retina, hepatogastric and gastrocolic ligament and mesenteric leaf node, the first part of duodenum and stomach regional lymph node. Sometimes, in order to clear the body of stomach cardia cancer next door spleen, lymph nodes around the splenic artery, have to line the entire stomach and pancreatic body, tail and spleen together with the expansion of radical resection. Cancer involving the transverse colon or left lobe of liver and other adjacent organs, it can be used together with the involvement of radical organ resection United.

skin diseases care

Skin symptoms: are diverse in nature with the skin, the severity of the disease and the patients on the individual holding the opposite sex. There are itching, pain, burning, numbness feeling. Other There are irritation, foreign body sensation of temperature and exposure to foreign bodies, such as susceptibility to increase or decrease.
Person is an organic whole, the internal organs and external body surface, limbs, facial features are unified, and the whole body with the external environment is uniform, and closely related.
The human body to internal organs as the center, through the meridians to communicate both inside and outside, contact skin, veins, flesh, tendons, bones, the body in case of disease, local changes can affect the whole body, systemic diseases can also be reflected in a partial. Outside the sick, can be imported inside, the visceral reaction of ill will out. Mental stimulation can affect the function of organs, organs sick, can also be caused by abnormal mental activities.
Skin is the body of one of the vital organs, and its physiological functions are closely related with the blood, if blood or viscera run dysfunctional disorders can cause a variety of skin diseases.
The main symptoms of skin disease are severe, go to the hospital disease diagnosis, doctors prescribe to patients in addition to injections, take medicine, most doctors will be matched more foreign drugs to patients, to patients through the drug to alleviate. This skin treatment often sick themselves, so if patients do not know the proper use of foreign agents, not only the treatment of skin diseases is not easy, and sometimes in doing so they will skin deterioration. Commonly used in skin outside the administration are as follows:
Lotion: the so-called wash agent is a mixture of water and flour agents, usually at the upper water, dust precipitation at the bottom. Skin lotion are commonly used in calamine lotion, sulfur lotion, etc.. When used should be noted that the first shake even after coating with a brush or cotton, and its pharmacological effects besides lotion by the addition of anti-inflammatory, bactericidal, anti-itching drug role, mainly through the wash after topical agent, evaporation of water, reducing the skin temperature, to achieve the therapeutic effects of skin disease. Therefore the number of coated with lotion every day to be ten times more, so that local temperature is lower. At the site of hair, and hair may be because they stick together, so should not be applied.

Natural teeth whitening

As we have everyone's hair and skin color, like different people have different tooth color. Some teeth are more yellow than others, and some will grow slowly with the age of yellow hair. Fineness of natural teeth you may also be affected by many factors. Tooth surface and internal color stains may be caused by the following factors:

Natural aging process

The use of tobacco (smoking or chewing tobacco), a cup of coffee, tea, cola or red wine, and eating colored foods, such as cherries and blueberries. The accumulation of dental plaque and tartar deposition

Dental plaque and tartar deposition

At the beginning of forming the teeth when swallowing too much fluoride in the next (sub-parts per million of fluoride in the water more than two points), which makes teeth appear to some "mottle"

Childhood tooth has been damaged, have been carried out with antibiotics tetracycline treatment.

Dental injury may be cause brown teeth changed, or is shaded black.

For whitening your teeth find a lot of reasons, including the following few:

In order to give you a beautiful smile, raise your confidence and self-esteem

Look younger

A special moment, such as weddings, job interviews, or gathering of classmates

In order to give other people a good first impression

Just want to reverse years of stains and the accumulation of yellow

At the beginning before any teeth whitening procedure, be sure to your dentist to consult. Only he or she can be evaluated, whether you are for a specific treatment for suitable candidates.

I need to carry out tooth whitening do?

Almost any person, as long as the permanent teeth have grown out, it may carry out tooth whitening conditional. Your dentist will assess your oral health, and do you suggest the most suitable method of whitening your teeth. Depends on your teeth stains on the type and severity of the dental treatment plan will recommend the following one or more of:

Professional cleaning, to remove from food and tobacco stains caused by external

In addition to going to the dentist, the peacetime use of whitening toothpaste to help to remove surface stains

In order to achieve excellent results, easy-to-use, inexpensive teeth whitening whitening gel or patch

For more stubborn stains or hair yellow, applying bleaching method (have the dental clinic or at home)

Noodles with inserts or adhesives to repair damage or irregular teeth, or to achieve specific effects

Advisory Dental Doctor, what whitening method is best for you

Yellow teeth with bleach is best. Changed or shaded brown teeth, or by tetracycline or excessive fluoride-induced stripe-like or mottled teeth, bleaching method may be used, not very uniform bleaching.

Suffering from periodontal disease or tooth hypersensitivity, especially in patients with teeth, perhaps should be avoided delicate gum may stimulate the chemical whitening techniques.

If your front teeth, and the natural tooth color have the same fillings, artificial crowns, braces or adhesives, it is recommended not to use the bleach method. Bleaching will not change the color of these substances so that they laughed at you just exposed between the teeth whitening have become very prominent. Maybe you will discuss with the dentist, want to know some other options, such as noodle or adhesive inlay. Certain times, if related to serious dental or jaw problems, recommend the use of artificial crowns or braces, to correct abnormal tooth problem, but also can have more white, more attractive smile.

Teeth whitening work?

There are many teeth whitening methods, from low-cost, you can clear a lot of surface stain whitening toothpaste and other products to the dental clinic where light-activated whitening technology, its cost of one thousand dollars, can bring significant results.

All whitening whitening technology principle for the following two in one:

1. Bleaching procedures change your natural teeth colority, usually from the whitening effect into five color brightness changes. Dental clinic (clinic chair side) and home whitening methods (occasional dish) whitening methods are dependent on the bleaching. Bleaching agent that contains an active ingredient, is usually too acid carbon diamine or hydrogen peroxide, a concentration of 10% to 22%, can help clear the teeth of deep and surface stains. Different bleaching procedures have very different requirements:

Dental clinic at the light-activated whitening procedures, sometimes referred to as chair side bleaching clinics at a cost of 500 U.S. dollars or more, the whitening can immediately see the results of the chroma of teeth is usually dramatic changes will happen than the previous white a lot of. However, in about a year after normal drinking (coffee, tea, soft drinks), again a slight discoloration of teeth, the formation of a new stain. You need treatment chair side bleaching method, 500 U.S. dollars to spend re-tooth whitening.

diabetes mellitus

Diabetes (diabetes mellitus) are a group of chronic blood glucose (referred to as blood sugar) levels increased metabolic diseases characterized by groups. Main features are high blood sugar, diabetes, polyuria, polydipsia, many food, weight loss, fatigue.
Diabetes is an ancient disease. 400 BC, China's earliest medical book "Yellow Emperor's Canon. Suwen" and "Lingshu" on the records of "Xiaoke card" "Xiaoke disease" of the disease. Han Zhang Zhongjing famous "Golden" Part of the Xiaoke "Sanduo" symptoms have been documented. The early years of the Tang Dynasty, the famous physician Zhen of China's first statement that the urine of patients with diabetes are sweet in the summer and fall, the urine of diabetic patients with strokes sometimes flies.
The world's first to recognize and treat diabetes doctors are famous Chinese Tang Dynasty, Wang Tao. Wang Tao According to his father, suffering from severe thirst, drink volume increased, many people Furuncle sores, urine fruit flavor, and Zhen Yan "old article inspection" one book, So he told his father to try to urinate, which turns out to be sweet. Therefore developed for the treatment of Diabetes program, supplemented by adjust diet, so his father, the disease brought under control. These experiences put him into the the "Waitai Miyao," one book.
"Waitai Miyao" than the 10th century Arab doctor Avicenna's "Medical Code" in about the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes more than 200 years early. AD 600 years after the British doctor Thomas William referred to the patient's urine before, "such as sugar may taste its honey." According to textual research, diabetes for the emperors in ancient nobility of the disease, occur in many obese, many among the rich food.
[Edit this paragraph] Second, what is diabetes
Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases. As people's living standards improve, the aging of the population, as well as an increase in the incidence of obesity, diabetes and the incidence of positive year-on-year rise. Diabetes incidence rate in China reached 2 percent, according to statistics, China has been diagnosed with diabetes up to 40 million and an annual rate of 1,000,000.
Diabetes is the interaction of genetic and environmental factors and diseases caused by clinically to high blood sugar as the main symbol of how common symptoms of drinking, polyuria, weight loss, etc., as well as many food. Diabetes if the lack of effective treatment, can cause physical damage to many systems. Caused by absolute or relative insulin secretion as well as the lack of target tissue cells to insulin sensitivity decreased, caused by protein, fat, water and electrolytes, such as a series of metabolic disorder syndrome, one of a high blood sugar as the main indicator. Typical clinical cases may be polyuria, polydipsia, many food, weight loss, such as performance, that is, "one little more than three" symptoms.

Kidney cancer symptoms

Kidney cancer symptoms
Kidney cancer is a malignant tumor from the renal parenchyma, also known as renal cell carcinoma is the most common kidney tumor, kidney tumor accounting for about 75% ~ 80%, age at onset of many in the 40-year-old to 60 years old, many male in female, about 3 ~ 5:1, on both sides of the kidneys no significant differences in incidence, while incidence are rare.

Kidney cancer from the renal tubular epithelial cells, outer envelope has, bright yellow cut surface, such as tumor hemorrhage is accompanied by red, brown or brown, often cystic degeneration and central necrosis, calcification, if, like a leather . Often seen under the microscope two types, one for clear cell carcinoma, this type of cancer cell differentiation better; the other for the granulosa cell carcinoma, poor differentiation of cancer cells, and higher degree of malignancy.

Renal cancer typical clinical manifestations are hematuria, mass and low back pain, but generally only to the three symptoms of advanced disease when they occur simultaneously.
1. Hematuria: the entire process painless gross hematuria often are sick to get medical treatment early hair symptoms, often without any incentives, nor accompanied by other urinary symptoms. After several hematuria often stop on its own again after the attack, his condition gradually increase.
2. Mass: tumor grow up in the margin of the rib mass hit.
3. Pain: kidney cancer early, often without any pain discomfort due to pain caused by renal cell carcinoma itself accounted for only about 40% of patients. 4. Others: left kidney tumor may be associated with secondary left varicocele, tumor thrombus invasion of inferior vena cava can occur when the lower extremity edema, lesions in patients with distant metastasis, may be symptoms of metastases. About 43% of hypertensive patients is still emerging performance often apparent in patients with advanced weight loss, anemia, cachexia and other weight-loss performance.

1. B-ultrasonic examination: non-invasive and can repeat the examination, can accurately distinguish cystic lesions or solid lesions.
2. CT scanning: CT scanning is not only able to correctly distinguish the nature of lesions are cystic or solid, the more vividly reflects the anatomical structure of the variation, after application of contrast agents are still capable of understanding the situation of renal function, this project has been classified as current renal Cancer preoperative routine examination.
3. Intravenous pyelography: the adoption of excretory urography, not only can see the renal pelvis caused by calyceal pressure situation, but also to understand the function of the contralateral kidney, which decided to remove kidney disease is an important prerequisite.
4. NMR: According to statistics, the application of magnetic resonance imaging for clinical staging of renal cell carcinoma can achieve an accuracy rate of 90%.
5. Renal artery angiography and embolization: renal artery angiography for renal cysts and renal tumors have an important role in the differential. Once the diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma line contrast at the same time that arterial embolization. Will enable the tumor after embolization reduced intraoperative bleeding and to reduce the proliferation of tumor thrombi, surgery may also reduce the degree of difficulty.
6. Laboratory examination: renal cell carcinoma in patients with gross hematuria in a large number of seizures after general exist under a greater or lesser extent in urine red blood cells, some sick urine cytology can be found in the cancerous cells, but relatively low positive rate.
7. Other: cystoscopy attack in hematuria hematuria can see where the side clearance from the option of the application.

1. Surgical treatment: renal cell carcinoma diagnosed by one early trip nephrectomy. To have lung metastasis, the patient generally fair and vital organs can tolerate surgery for resection of primary renal cell carcinoma, and alleviate the condition has a certain advantage.
2. Radiotherapy: Radiotherapy is currently used mainly for renal cell carcinoma patients: ① young patients, a history of short, rapid tumor growth, toxicity symptoms were line preoperative radiotherapy can reduce the tumor size; ② cancer has spread to nearby organs or tumor resection is not complete cases, postoperative radiotherapy can reduce local recurrence; ③ advanced renal cell carcinoma can not be surgically removed, radiation therapy can reduce pain, hematuria and symptoms of tumor toxicity.
3. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy for renal cell carcinoma less effective, combined with chemotherapy may improve the efficacy of chemotherapy in recent years carried out in vitro susceptibility testing, screening of chemotherapeutic drugs may have certain benefits.
4. Hormone therapy: progesterone, testosterone for metastatic renal cell carcinoma can play the role of disease remission.
5. Immunotherapy: BCG, transfer factor, immune RNA, interferon, IL-such as the prevention of recurrence or alleviate the progression of the disease there is some use.

What is kidney cancer

What is kidney cancer
Renal cell carcinoma are the most common adult kidney tumor. Male to female ratio of about 3.5:1, and often happen after the age of 40, sometimes 30 years of age, the individual age of only 20 years old. Male smokers are the cause of kidney cancer, female smokers had nothing to do with them. Male smokers and exposure to cadmium from industrial environment than adult kidney. Coffee may increase the risk of renal cell carcinoma, has nothing to do with coffee consumption. Incidence of renal cell carcinoma tend to have family. Renal cell carcinoma from renal tubular epithelial cells. Gradually grow up and pelvis when invasive hematuria. Such as penetrating the renal capsule can be invasive perirenal fat or adjacent organs. Renal cell carcinoma> 3cm transfer that is easy to happen.

Clinical manifestations

1. Early asymptomatic. Cancer development of the main symptoms of intermittent painless gross hematuria.

2. Cancer is located in lower pole renal or larger, the upper can and the mass.

3. Pain for advanced symptoms, often dull pain waist.

4. Extrarenal manifestations were fever, hypertension, hypercalcemia, many levels, varicocele, cachexia, and tumor metastasis symptoms.

Diagnosis based on

1. Age> 40-year-old male has painless gross hematuria, and renal cell carcinoma should be suspected; 2. Urography showed renal lesions. 3. Ultrasonography showed localized thickening protruding renal, kidney Collection Department of echo shift under pressure, intrarenal hypoechoic round mass. 4.CT scan showed substantial intrarenal lesions accounted bit. 5. Blood alkaline phosphatase increased value.

Treatment principles

1. Early radical nephrectomy;

2. Preoperative renal artery embolization can reduce the bleeding and to prevent the spread of cancer in patients.

3. Such as solitary kidney or bilateral renal cell carcinoma renal cell carcinoma and contralateral renal function well, and should be held in the renal nephron sparing surgery organizations such as partial nephrectomy can be a tumor cut out.

4. Vena cava tumor thrombus in the renal radical excision, the removal of intravenous thrombi or inferior vena cava tumor thrombus removed.

5. Radiotherapy, chemotherapy, immune therapy and hormone treatment are not sure.

Use the principles of

Renal cancer chemotherapy, immune therapy and hormone treatment is not certain that United can be used for more than two kinds of treatment effect is good.

Bone structure

A total of adult bone 206 to form the stent body. According to the different patterns of bone can be divided into long bones, short bones, flat bones and irregular bones. Constitute the main bone by bone, the periosteum wrapped outside, hidden inside the bone marrow.
1. Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a major part of bone. Divided into bone mass and bone density cancellous bone mass density hard at the surface of bone; bone cancellous bone located in the deep.
2. Periosteal periosteal bone are located on the surface (except for the articular surface) close to the thin layer of bone mass density of connective tissue membrane. Its rich nerves, blood vessels and hematopoietic cells, the periosteum of bone fracture repair nutrition and Takeo watch role in properly.
3. Marrow bone marrow bone filled with cancellous bone in the mesh and the bone marrow cavity. Fetal, neonatal bone marrow are red bone marrow with hematopoietic function. With age, bone marrow cavity of the red bone marrow adipose tissue is gradually replaced by bone marrow into yellow, no hematopoietic function. Long bone of spongy bone or flat bone marrow red bone marrow is, and always maintained a hematopoietic function.

1. Calvarial bone composed by 23. Supraorbital margin of the skull to subglottic edge to connect the external ear for the community, from top to bottom is divided into two parts,lower for the cranial surface (Figure 2-4).
(1) brain skull bone from 8 composition, the brain is located in cavity. Cerebral skull is a frontal bone, is located anterior cranial can be divided into the amount of scales, orbital and nasal; parietal bone 2, located in places, between the occipital bone; occipital 1, is located posterior; sphenoid 1, is located cranial at the end of the middle occipital Habitat ago, so named because of the shape of butterflies, the sphenoid bone sub-body, big wings, small wings and wing process; temporal bone 2, around each one, located in sphenoid, parietal bone, occipital bone between the cranial constitute at the end of the sidewall, squamous temporal bone is divided into the Department of the Ministry of mastoid, petrous, drum Department; one ethmoid bone, located under the frontal bone and skull base of the former front, sandwiched between the two eyes, divided into plate, perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone and the labyrinth.
(2) facial skull bone constituted by 15, forming a orbital cavity, nasal cavity, oral and other facial contours. Skull surface, respectively, are plow a bone located between the two nasal cavity, in order to constitute the lower part of nasal septum, the rear of the flat thin plate of bone; a mandible, which is outside the skull, in addition to bone Events can only bone is the largest cranial facial bone; infrahyoid 1, located anterior, the next between the mandible and thyroid cartilage, through the ligament and styloid process of temporal bone connected Hyoid divided into physical, Arcturus, small angle ; Maxilla 2, divided into maxillary body, the amount of process, zygomatic process, palatal, alveolar process, constitute a knock on the wall of the mouth, inferior orbital wall, lateral wall of the nasal cavity; nose 2, located around the jaw, between the amount of penetration for the nasal part of the upper wall; lacrimal bone 2, thin and brittle, it seems the size of fingernails, the former connected to the amount of mandibular protrusion, even after the ethmoid labyrinth of the orbital plane, is located in two of the front wall of intraorbital ; cheekbone 2, in the frontal bone between the maxilla and is located beneath the outer orbital, temporal process and the zygomatic process of temporal bone zygomatic arch from the link, the cheeks are bony protrusions; inferior turbinate 2, attached to the maxillary body nose and face, for the curly thin bony plates; two palatine bone, located in the maxillary palatal process of the sphenoid wing, between the lateral wall of nasal cavity constitutes a part of and the latter part of the hard palate.

2. Trunk bone trunk bone are from 24 vertebrae, one sacrum, coccyx consisting of 1.
(1) according to different parts of vertebrae and is divided into cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral vertebrae (sacrum) and caudal (coccygeal).
1) the structure of vertebra vertebrae vertebral body and vertebral arch has two parts. Vertebral body in the former, Spondylolysis in the latter, both surrounded foramen. Connected to the foramen into the spinal canal called the lumen, containing the spinal cord. Spondylolysis has seven processes: the name behind the spinous process, on both sides of the two process is called transverse process, and under the two pairs of protrusions called on the articular process and the next facet.

3) A total of 12 ribs right. Rib points before and after the client and three body parts. Back-end including the rib head, neck and ribs and other rib tubercle. With the front rib cartilage and sternum connected with the corresponding back-end constitute thoracic joints (

1) shoulder strap by the clavicle and scapula bone composition.
① clavicle at the root of subcutaneous cervical length can be touched. The level of spaces. Within the thick client, and handle the relevant section of the sternum; the outer end flat, with the relevant section of the scapula

Carpal rules for small rather than a short bone. Its name many signs of their respective shapes. From top to bottom with two rows of points. Last row from the export-oriented for the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum and pisiform bone; next row has mostly from outside to inside the angle of bone, small Polyhedrosis bone, capitate bone and hamate bone.
Metacarpal bone metacarpal bone of each piece do not have a special name, by the direction of the thumb to the little finger, respectively, known as I, II, III, IV, V metacarpal. Metacarpal proximal to the end for the middle body, distal to the first. At the end of the first metacarpal was saddle-shaped articular surface for the saddle; the rest are flat articular surface.
(2) lower limb bone from the lower extremities and the composition of free lower limb.
1) lower limb bones composed mainly by the hip. Are located on each side above the hip bone, a piece of the rear ischium, the former composed of the bottom of the pubis.
① hip bone is located on the outside. Bone of the upper part of a wide flat thin, called iliac wing. Wing upper edge thickening, called iliac crest. Iliac crest in front of protrusions called anterior superior iliac spine, below the protrusions called anterior iliac spine.

Height and bone

A person's height is determined by the skeleton, bone growth and development well, build it tall; bone growth and development of faults, will lead to growth retardation, short stature is it.

In the skeletal system, the relationship with the person's height is the biggest lower limb long bones and vertebrae, especially in lower extremity long bone is even more important.

Limb long bones mainly by the backbone, such as bones and metaphyseal component parts. Metaphysis between the backbone and has a layer of cartilage, called epiphyseal plates (or cartilage). Epiphyseal cartilage, whose central part of the first ossification, ossification center said. In child growth and development of the whole process, the bone growth continued in the long bones at both ends of the ossification centers and epiphyseal cartilage plate, and thus gradually increase the length of bone, also with the growth in height. By the late youth 17 to 20 years old, and epiphyseal cartilage gradually began to integration, then started to slow down bone growth. Until the epiphyseal cartilage plate and fully integrated together, stop the growth of long bones, and will no longer increase height. This shows that the person's height, bone growth and epiphyseal end of long bone and cartilage is most closely related.

Congenital diseases, severe malnutrition, severe lack of vitamin D, metaphyseal dysplasia and achondroplasia and other bone metabolic disease, may impede the growth of bones and long bone development side would give rise to children's bone growth obstacles, and ultimately emergence of short stature.

About urine information

Human body are all kinds of urine from the kidney excretion of metabolic waste out, and its composition can affect urine color and transparency. Turbid urine can be caused by disease, or it may be a physiological phenomenon, be careful to observe changes in the process of urine be judged.

(1) early discharge clarified, placed after the turbidity: normal urine is to clarify when in the fresh transparent, color light yellow or colorless. However, when the urine does not put a period after a long time, urine and various salts (for example, urate, phosphate, carbonate, etc.) will be out by crystallization, so that the next part of urine was turbid and white. This is a physiological phenomenon rather than pathological.

Another case, the early discharge of urine to clarify that a little stay, found in urine at the end there are some small blackish-brown sand, it was vividly called the roe (eggs)-like small grains of sand, which is a uric acid crystals, often are a large number of patients suffering from gout uric acid in the urine discharged from the crystallization of precipitation.

(2) from turbidity

① chyluria: First discharge of urine such as milky white as milk, and sometimes there are small clots gel, which was particularly prevalent in the lymphatic system diseases.

② pyuria: When urine mixed with a large number of leukocytes and inflammatory debris organizations, the entire urine was turbid white pollution. This is mostly caused by bacterial infection, often accompanied by frequent urination has more obvious, symptoms such as urgency.

(3) voiding clarify, the last few drops of urine for turbidity: this phenomenon only in the male voiding bladder muscle contraction, particularly in the end of urination, easy to "affect" or squeeze into the prostate and seminal vesicle, prostate fluid secretion and thus sperm has also been squeezed out a little bit, a few drops of urine after the liquid is turbid urine, prostatic fluid and semen mixture. This phenomenon, most are physical in nature, especially after the excitement in the male-prone. But there are also a small part is due to the prostate or seminal vesicle has inflammation, more easily contracted bladder and bowel, discharge a small amount of secretions, which are sick, need to be further confirmed.

Eye protection

Video terminal syndrome, refers to as a result of long-term computer or computer monitor screen to reduce eye movement blink, tears well should not uniformly distributed in the ocular surface, resulting in dry eye, eye Shibuya, fatigue, chronic conjunctivitis and other eye symptoms, These symptoms may also be a dry eye.
With an Eye to eye a long time the harm is great, for example, many people say the time to visit, I thought I watch TV a long time the eyes will be special Shibuya, in particular, do sometimes have a headache, eye pain condition, things look very fuzzy, prolonged use of computers, playing electronic games or watching TV will be after the regular eye fatigue, dryness, itching, burning sensation, photophobia and other problems, so that the Office of Family impossible.
Visual environment as a result of changes due to long time watching TV, watch the computer caused by "video terminal syndrome" has become more and more young people the main reason for decline in vision. Ophthalmologists in the clinical treatment has found that as a result of visual changes in the environment, "video terminal syndrome" will substantially increase the occurrence.
As the computer screen by a small fluorescent dots, the eyes have to constantly adjust the focal length in order to ensure a clear visual objects, time is too long, eye muscle fatigue would be too. At the same time, watching the screen, the blinking number will be reduced 10%, a decrease of tear output; and prolonged eye exposure to the air, so that excessive water evaporation, resulting in dry eye discomfort, even serious injury in the cornea. Air-conditioned office environment, frequent use of lead water to accelerate the tears were drying.
Prevention of computer terminals syndrome, first of all need to note the following:
Maintain the computer screen with the eye distance of 50 ~ 60 cm; equipped with the exclusive use of the computer chair, adjust the seat height and backrest good angle; screen located at the geometric center, as the plane following the best, but in 15-degree angle or less; the most important point is a the duration of the use of computers not too long, at intervals of 50 minutes rest for 10 minutes.
Should be particular emphasis on the importance of regular breaks, this is to prevent eyestrain the most effective way, preferably at intervals of one hour or so stand up and walk to the window while Yuanwang. Not only for the eyes, good health is also a great benefit. Can also make some eye drops to maintain lubrication of the eye drops. For driving, reading and other visual fatigue caused by eye irritation, can also be used from time to time to rest approach to regulation.

Maintenance of the eye

Evenly apart from nutrition, the multi-eat food containing vitamin is very important. In addition, proteins contain and regulate the function of the eye muscles.
Importantly, try not to stay up all night, if the symptoms of eyestrain can also use tea in place of eyedrops to wash the eyes.
Hi! Miss two, and you have just heard that "eye wash", how the two ladies of "eye wash" is also interested in it?
You do not speak no one to you as dumb!

Refrain from excessive use of eyes, more intake of protein and vitamin rich food
In the excessive use of eyes to read books, television and computer people, more and more people feel eyestrain. Such as eye pain, blurred vision, eyes bloodshot, eye irritation, tears streaming eyes, are symptoms of eyestrain. Sometimes even have headaches, dizziness, shoulder stiffness, nausea and other symptoms.
Usual intake of the eyes should be fully helpful vitamins A, B1, B2, C, and pay attention to nutritional balance. Vitamins for the treatment of dry eye are particularly effective, can be given the necessary nutrition eyes. Containing vitamin A-rich foods has lamprey, liver, cheese, cream, egg yolk, spinach, carrots, parsley and so on.
Regulation, we should reinforce our eye muscles, must be multi-containing amino acid intake (protein) of food, such food also has to make the eyes more beautiful results.
Excessive fatigue and lack of sleep are the reasons causing eyestrain. Eyes and body to rest of course are very important.
Should not eat food
Garlic bad for the eyes, chocolate can cause the eyes bloodshot, should avoid eating

Fill a tooth

If suffering from dental caries should be repaired as early as possible, because after cavities can be repaired to prevent the development of caries lesions, as soon as possible to restore the function of teeth, and maintain the integrity of the dentition.

Without timely treatment, lesions will be more and more, from shallow to deep caries caries development, such as sweet and sour to hot and cold food to stimulate the sensitive; when the damage reached the pulp, causing pulpitis, at this time will be very severe toothache ; When the lesion further development, can cause periapical inflammation and periapical abscess, osteomyelitis and even jaw, missing teeth. Carious or missing teeth can affect chewing and increase gastrointestinal burden, thereby affecting their health. Moreover, dental caries, there are a lot of bacteria and pus, as one potential lesions, when the body resistance to decline, it can cause sepsis or bacteremia. The fillings can be terminated so that the occurrence of these diseases and development, so as soon as possible should be suffering from dental caries.

In addition, because clinical manifestations of dental caries, caries form is divided into primary and secondary caries. And acute dental caries is a primary caries, it changes faster progress. In children or young people, the tooth tissue lesions color light, soft and moist texture, pulp tissue as a result of lesions quickly and with little or no formation of reparative dentin, so vulnerable to infection and disease occurred in the pulp. At the same time, children suffer from dental caries chewing food hinder, inhibit the digestion and absorption of nutrients, due to a decline in chewing ability, which stimulate jaw growth and development of the role of decline. In the face and neck radiotherapy patients and suffering from homes Green's syndrome patients and due to other causes patients to reduce saliva secretion, and its rapid caries development, and often involved the majority of teeth, known as the fierce onset of caries. For those suffering from acute dental caries and caries-meng-onset patients, but dental treatment as soon as possible in order to prevent the rapid development of caries.

Related Links 3: Why should not fill a tooth and sometimes a complete

Why should not fill a tooth and sometimes a complete people asked the doctors to fill a tooth, they hope to fill a good time. Shallow caries, in caries and some patients with deep caries, carious organizations to do, no subjective symptoms, it is can be implemented immediately filling law. However, patients with deep caries, in the past have subjective symptoms, when to do carious Organization, with or without spontaneous pain delayed filling method should be implemented, in which case fill a tooth can not be completed once.

Dental care

DIY effects if not ideal, you can turn to professionals, to professional dental clinic or hospital to allow doctors to help you "brush" - This is the ultrasonic scaling. Scaling is a good means of dental care as well as the treatment of periodontal disease the primary measures, through regular scaling, not only on the elimination of dental plaque and calculus, so that to maintain a healthy periodontal tissue.

Prevention and treatment of periodontal disease, scaling was not easy to easy to find small dental noticeable, such as the relatively hidden caries, early detection so as to achieve the purpose of early treatment. Through to the teeth "bath", to the teeth surface and even deep cracks in the teeth of dirt are removed, this was the normal white color of the teeth will be able to resume.

Good oral hygiene habits, and about the need for a thorough cleaning once a year; poor oral hygiene, and six months on the need for scaling; people who have periodontal disease, periodontal disease has not yet under control in the stage, a 3-month wash teeth have helped to control the disease.

Wallet shrinkage: a few hundred dollars

Beautiful degrees:

Misery Index: 1

Have a small number of people in scaling, the teeth sensitive to hot and cold have flabby phenomenon, this is because after the removal of teeth, so that the results of the root exposed. In this case even more to maintain oral hygiene, for example, to switch to warm water when brushing their teeth, usually sensitive to the phenomenon will disappear soon.

Applies to dental status: Has calculus, smoke stains, gingival bleeding, dental, etc. color yellow teeth.

Advantages: not only the maintenance of oral hygiene, teeth can also remove surface dirt, so that the restoration of the natural color of teeth.

Disadvantages: Can not remove the internal teeth of the pigment, not the true meaning of making teeth white.

>> GH reminded:

1. More in-depth scaling often lead to damaged gums bleeding, caused bacteremia, so the oral preoperative disinfection is very important. Ultrasonic scaling is the scaling of the main procedures, using a scaling machine handle, it is very important to disinfect, in the absence of high-temperature disinfection and sterilization, it was entirely possible to pathogens through repeated use of the scaling machine handle the spread from one patient to another a patient, scaling HIV infection is not hearsay "alarmist." Therefore, the scaling must choose formal, large-scale clinics or hospitals.

2. Scaling should be less attention to smoking, cutting non-ferrous beverage, and with the continued whitening whitening toothpaste may be the effect of the extension of white.

Misery index: 1.5. Almost not hurt, but because every day to wear more than one hours time, with a total feeling of teeth on something a bit sad because of the feeling.

Applies to dental status: smoking, drinking coffee, chewing betel nut, etc., causing discolored teeth, black and mild pigment teeth, enamel hypoplasia, as well as age-induced changes in tooth enamel color yellow.

Advantages: easy to operate, simple, more obvious effects.

Disadvantages: on the moderate to severe tetracycline teeth whitening dental fluorosis and other effects in general, for sensitive teeth easily lead to discomfort.

Heart disease

Heart disease is the general term for heart disease, including rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, coronary heart disease, myocarditis and other heart disease.

Common heart disease are: hypertensive heart disease - high blood pressure caused by the long-term; coronary heart disease - caused by coronary artery disease occurs; rheumatic heart disease-A hemolytic streptococcus cause; congenital heart disease - congenital heart malformation.

Generated causes heart disease: obesity (more than 20% of ideal body weight and above) affect the blood easy to transport and increase the burden on the heart; often tense emotional life; smoking, drinking excessive; food Eating too much fat; by other diseases, such as: hypertension, diabetes, hardening of the arteries, syphilis, rheumatic fever, chronic respiratory diseases; genetic diseases or pregnancy result of fetal cardiac malformation.

Heart disease symptoms: difficulty breathing, shortness of breath; accelerated heartbeat, palpitations; frail, easily dizziness; loss of appetite, stomach discomfort; edema; chest pain (with the symptoms, the need for a speedy medical treatment); arrhythmia.

Heart disease prevention and care: regular health check-ups, such as blood pressure, ECG and so on. If early treatment of heart disease should avoid deterioration; if high blood pressure, diabetes and so should be early treatment; a balanced diet, not overeating; appropriate exercise, not too Labor, in order to avoid obesity; to give up smoking, alcohol; to maintain the spirit of quiet, rest and sleep; the lifting of the psychological pressure, to avoid nervousness.

The causes of heart disease: heart organ can be divided into a variety of diseases, such as coronary heart disease, heart disease leakage, heart muscle weakness, abnormal heart valves activities and so on. However, because heart disease is the most common, so ordinary people will be called the Pan - for heart disease. heart disease is a result of dirty cholesterol on the artery wall block, forming a blood clot, and so that the blood supply to the heart was severely reduced, resulting in angina, myocardial tissue of instability arising from electrical pulse. If the supply part of blood to the heart of a complete halt, the part will not be able to get oxygen and which maintain the normal operation of nutrients, causing irreparable harm, or even lead to death.

Healthy Eating

1. Daily cholesterol intake does not exceed 300 mg.

2. Fat intake does not exceed 30% of total calories.

3. Eat less or eat sucrose, glucose and other refined carbohydrate foods.

4. Eat foods rich in vitamin C such as fruit, fresh vegetables, vegetable oil.

5. Eat less saturated fatty acids and cholesterol with high food such as meat, egg yolk, animal oils, animal offal, such as.

6. Catering to high-K hyponatremia, encourage consumption of soy products, tea.

7. Eating regularly, must not be too hungry or over-fed.

8. Cellulose appropriate intake of food (including cereal starch) in order to maintain patency stool.

Remind II: appropriate movement

Heart disease is an important reason there is a lack of exercise. In the same living environment, often sitting motionless, and suffering from coronary heart disease than the regular activities 2 times higher.

Movement of the Heart What are the advantages? Movement can promote the heart of the small blood vessels to expand, extend, increase, improve myocardial oxygen supply situation, to improve blood lipid metabolism. Sports also help to improve myocardial metabolism and improve the working abilities of myocardial metabolism and cardiac function. In addition, can improve blood fibrinolytic activity, to prevent the hemagglutinin too high, to prevent and retard atherosclerosis development helpful.

Symptoms of heart disease

Diagnosis of the disease symptoms are often the precursor. The same was true of heart disease, the patient's feeling, but also provides physicians with an important clue. However, in real life, some irrelevant symptoms linked with heart disease is common thing. Many people think that is the heart palpitations. In fact, despite the heart palpitations but it is a healthy and sound of. Therefore, the symptoms of heart disease to make it clear that to arouse people's attention and the elimination of unnecessary uncertainty is necessary.
Fatigue: It is often a variety of heart disease symptoms. When the heart so that poor blood circulation, metabolic wastes (mainly lactic acid) can accumulate in the tissues and stimulate peripheral nerves, cause fatigue. Fatigue can be re-light, light can not care, could impede the work of the heaviest. However, there is no specificity of heart disease fatigue, it and other diseases caused by the difficulty of distinguishing between fatigue.
Pain: myocarditis, pericarditis, arrhythmia patients may feel chest pain. The most common is angina. Angina often tired, excited, a meal for the incentive sudden attack, chest pain and more in the middle, there is oppression, burning or squeezing flu, and even a sense of dying of suffocation, and some may Bleeding in the left shoulder, back and medial left upper arm. Pain in the short duration of the disappearance of 3-5 minutes, the longest not more than 20 minutes.
Shortness of breath: shortness of breath are common symptoms of heart disease. The most significant feature of exertional shortness of breath and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea. Labor is shortness of breath shortness of breath with activity. Heart disease often say, I am on the second floor have palpitation, breath, can not stand; paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea sleep at night that is uneven, and sometimes hold up from a dream, and sit a while in order to ease breathing.
Cyanosis: skin and mucous membrane, antihelix around the nose and lips weeks purple fingers.
Edema: the body or lower extremity edema, and sometimes appeared stagnant water in the chest or abdominal cavity.
Palpitation: Patients often feel palpitations, especially in activities beyond. However, in the heart or other diseases may also occur when the disease, the diagnosis of heart palpitations of little significance

basic structure of the heart

The heart is located in the chest cavity, above the diaphragm, the second between the lung, about two-thirds of the left in the middle lane. If a reversal of the heart, and before and after the cone a little flat. Apical blunt yen, towards the bottom left, and the chest wall adjacent to, and its surface projection in the left chest wall fifth medial clavicular midline 1-2cm Department, so here we can see or touch the apex beat. Wide bottom of my heart, there are large blood vessels resulting from North Korea right after the top, with the esophagus and other organs after mediastinal adjacent.

The heart of the surface near the bottom of my heart Department, there are cross-bit almost a week around the heart, just in front of aorta and pulmonary artery was the beginning of the Department of the interruption. Groove above the left and right atrium, ditch Following the left and right ventricle. In front of and after the ventricle (lower) have a vertical surface of the shallow, extended by the apex slightly to the right, respectively, before and after the chamber said sulcus, for the left and right ventricular surface boundaries. The left atrium, left ventricular and right atrium and right ventricle of normal relations between the location of mild from right to left to reverse the phenomenon, that is, tend to front the top of the right heart, left the bottom of the left ventricular biased.

The heart is a hollow muscular organ with a four-chamber: After the upper part of the left atrium, right atrium, atrial septum between the two are separated; before the lower part for the left ventricle, right ventricle, the two intervals to ventricular septal. Under normal circumstances, because of room, ventricular septal separation, left heart and right heart does not directly transport, but each atrial Atrioventricular I may be leading to the ipsilateral ventricle.

Thin-walled right atrium. According to the direction of blood flow, right atrium has three entrances, one exit. Entrance that is on the inferior vena cava and coronary sinus mouth mouth. Ostium of coronary venous blood for the heart wall of the main entrance. Exit right atrioventricular mouth, right atrium with its pass to the right ventricle. After the lower part of atrial septal oval oval depression, said Waterloo for embryonic period connectivity left and right atrium of the foramen ovale ruins after atresia. Right atrium to the left before striking the upper part of that right atrial appendage.

Different from the right ventricle 2, the entrance that is the right atrioventricular mouth, and its peripheral shaped leaves with three valves, said the right atrioventricular valve (that is, the tricuspid valve). By location, respectively, said before the valve, after the valve, valve septum. Vertical valve chamber, and by many lines kind of tendons and ventricular papillary muscle connected walls. Pulmonic said exports, and its peripheral valve has three half-moon, said the pulmonary valve.

Left atrium constitute the majority of the bottom of my heart, there are four entrances, one exit. In the left atrial posterior wall of both sides, each with a pair of pulmonary vein for pulmonary vein around the entrance; the left atrium of the former under the left atrioventricular mouth, leading to left ventricle. The front of the left atrium to the right before the salient parts of the left atrial appendage said.

Left ventricular discrepancy 2. That is, the entrance of the left atrioventricular mouth with peripheral left atrioventricular valve (mitral), by location, said before the valve, after the valve, they are tendons, respectively, with the former, the latter linked to papillary muscles. Export-aortic mouth, is located in the front left atrioventricular mouth above the margin of the aortic valve with a half-moon.

The symptoms of chronic pharyngitis

The symptoms of chronic pharyngitis
Pharynx can have all kinds of feeling unwell, such as foreign body sensation, itching, burning, dry, micro-pain, dry cough, cough difficult net, speech fatigue, mouthwash or brushing their teeth, speech, nausea and vomiting for a long time easy.
Sore throat treatment method:
1. I take tablets, especially the mouth of phenol tablet surface can kill bacteria, help control the invasion, with a more modest role in anesthesia can be paralysis nerve endings to reduce pain, the spray liquid phenol have the same effect
2. I take zinc tablets, which can effectively relieve sore throat, but not for the use of high doses of zinc up more than seven days to avoid interference with other minerals in the body
3. Wash saline solution or other treatment, such as chamomile tea, lemon juice, whiskey, if the voices are hoarse or coughing, then the deeper parts of the pain, then rinse saline than useless
4. To increase the indoor humidity, not only mouth breathing and inhalation of dry air, causing pain
5. To solve the problem of nasal obstruction can reduce the problem of sore throat
6. Taking painkillers to relieve pain
7. Drink boiled water
8. Chamomile soak into the boiling water, then hot towel soaked dry screw directly deposited in the affected area to be cooling towel to repeat the aforementioned moves, which will help to ease discomfort
9. Taking capsules, to be effective disinfection, the only counter-productive should immediately stop using
10. Taking vitamin C, will help strengthen the organization, can help fight sore throat bacteria
11. Replacement toothbrush, an old toothbrush to prevent bacterial invasion, if the sick, the recovery should change a toothbrush to avoid being infected with

Sore throat treatment

The symptoms of chronic pharyngitis
Pharynx can have all kinds of feeling unwell, such as foreign body sensation, itching, burning, dry, micro-pain, dry cough, cough difficult net, speech fatigue, mouthwash or brushing their teeth, speech, nausea and vomiting for a long time easy.
Sore throat treatment method:
1. I take tablets, especially the mouth of phenol tablet surface can kill bacteria, help control the invasion, with a more modest role in anesthesia can be paralysis nerve endings to reduce pain, the spray liquid phenol have the same effect
2. I take zinc tablets, which can effectively relieve sore throat, but not for the use of high doses of zinc up more than seven days to avoid interference with other minerals in the body
3. Wash saline solution or other treatment, such as chamomile tea, lemon juice, whiskey, if the voices are hoarse or coughing, then the deeper parts of the pain, then rinse saline than useless
4. To increase the indoor humidity, not only mouth breathing and inhalation of dry air, causing pain
5. To solve the problem of nasal obstruction can reduce the problem of sore throat
6. Taking painkillers to relieve pain
7. Drink boiled water
8. Chamomile soak into the boiling water, then hot towel soaked dry screw directly deposited in the affected area to be cooling towel to repeat the aforementioned moves, which will help to ease discomfort
9. Taking capsules, to be effective disinfection, the only counter-productive should immediately stop using
10. Taking vitamin C, will help strengthen the organization, can help fight sore throat bacteria
11. Replacement toothbrush, an old toothbrush to prevent bacterial invasion, if the sick, the recovery should change a toothbrush to avoid being infected with

Eye diseases first aid

The eyes are the window of our psychological, so we have to crack the Prevention of Cruelty to. Teach you the following first-aid methods of eyes: If you suspect head injury, foreign bodies embedded in the eye or chemicals splash into the eyes, should call the emergency phone.
If the eye with blood, the application of clean cloth to cover the eyes, and bring patients to the hospital.
If the eyes are active bleeding, should raise the patient's head position so that it is higher than the heart, with a clean cloth to cover their eyes and took him to a nearby hospital.
NOTE: If you suspect head, neck, back injury, not to move patients, emergency phone call.
Symptoms: eye injury or break, the eyes can not be opened, around the eyes or eye pain, light allergy, eyes bleeding, visually impaired, the eyes dry, itching, headaches, tears, ranging from bilateral pupil large, fast frequency chemicals splash into the eyes blink
Note: do not waste any time, immediately wash with water eyes, and to ensure that there is water below the double-eyelid to enter. Do not use anything other than dealing with the eyes. Do not let patients rub their eyes.
1, eye wash with water. If you can not find the tap, you can use cup of water rinse eyes for 15 minutes, and to ensure that water entering the eye angle. Wash the eyes, so who opened his eyes and the flow of water washed at least 15 minutes, and water before entering the eye, and then out of the eyes. If the eyes damaged water rinse eyes.
2, if the patients to wear contact lenses should we let him off.
3, suffering from eye coverage. After washing with a clean cotton cloth covering of the eye disease, and covered his eyes bandaged in order to reduce the risk of eye activity. If possible, should be to identify the chemical burns the eyes, or at least should tell their doctor chemicals are wet or dry.
Foreign Bodies:
Note: Do not try to be embedded in the eyes of foreign bodies removed. If a larger foreign body, such as pens, used in a paper cup on the open a hole and put it in the eye to boosting the foreign body, and fixed cups. With cloth to cover the other eye in order to avoid suffering from eye movement. If the foreign body in the smaller, and with a cloth to cover his eyes and less fixed.

Structure of the eye

Approximate spherical eyes, is located within the orbit. Normal adult of its average diameter 24mm, down an average diameter of 23mm. The most prominent in orbit outside the front of 12 - 14mm, by eyelid protection. Including the eye wall of the eyeball, eye cavity and contents, nerves, blood vessels and other organizations.

1. Eyeball wall divided into outer, middle and inside the three-tier.

Outer layer from the cornea, sclera composition. The former 1 / 6 for the transparent cornea, and the remaining 5 / 6 for the white sclera, commonly known as "white." The outer eye to maintain eye shape and eye protection organizations. Cornea is to accept the entrance of the information the most outposts. Cornea is a transparent eyeball anterior part of the light into the eye after this. Cornea is slightly oval-shaped, slightly forward process. Diameter for the 11.5-12mm, vertical diameter of about 10.5-11mm. Thick around 1mm, the central government as 0.6mm. Pre-corneal tear film layer of the cornea to prevent drying, and maintain smooth and optical characteristics of the cornea role. Cornea is rich in nerves, astute. So the cornea is not only light to enter the eye and refracted image of the main structure, but also to protect the role and determination of the human body is an important part of perception. Sclera for dense collagen fiber structure, opaque, showing white, resilient texture.

Middle, also known as uveal, pigment membrane, is rich in pigment and blood vessels, including the iris, ciliary body and choroidal three parts.
Iris: ring was round, the most in uveal the first part, located in Crystal ago, said fold radial texture, with uneven surface recess. People of different races in different colors of the iris. Central has a 2.5-4mm of the hole, said the pupil. Ciliary body before then iris root, followed by choroidal, lateral to the sclera, the medial suspensory ligament through the Department of the equator and Crystal connected. Choroidal located between the sclera and retina. Choroidal blood circulation nutrition outer retina, which contains a wealth of pigment from the role of shading darkroom.
Inner retina is a layer of transparent film, is also a form of visual nerves the first leg of the transmission of information. Has a very sophisticated network architecture and extensive metabolic and physiological functions. Retina is to finish as the axis for macular foveal. Macula is the retina most sensitive visual special region, a diameter of about 1-3mm, the central government as a small concave, or foveal. Macular nasal Department about 3mm a diameter of 1.5mm red light district, for the optic disc, also known as the optic nerve is pooled retina visual fiber transmission backbone to the visual parts of the eye, no photoreceptor cells, it appeared for the vision inherent in the dark zone, saying that the physiological blind spot.

Urine test

Urine test:

A general check-up:
1, urine:
Normal reference value
Adult :1.0-1 .5L/24h, or 1mL / (h kg body weight); Children: kg body weight count by more than 3-4 times more than adults.
Clinical significance
1. Volume reduction
(1) physiological drinking less, sweating wait.
(2) common in pathological nephritis, uremia renal failure, shock, dehydration, severe burns, heart failure and so on.
2. An increase in urine
(1) physiological sweat less, water too much, drinking strong tea, alcohol, mental tension.
(2) pathological diabetes insipidus, diabetes, chronic nephritis, such as.
2, Color:
Normal reference value
Transparent, amber yellow.
3, density:
Normal reference value
Normal day between 1.15-1.025 urine density, density fluctuations of the largest up to between 1.003-1.030; newborn in between 1.002-1.004.
Clinical significance
Urine density to reduce common in chronic pyelonephritis, diabetes insipidus, chronic glomerulonephritis, acute renal failure polyuria periods of time.
Urine density was particularly prevalent in the diabetes, high fever, dehydration, such as acute glomerulonephritis.
4, acid-base properties:
Normal reference value
Urine pH (pH) in between 5.5-7.4, under normal circumstances at around 6.5.
Clinical significance
Urine pH value is less than the normal, common in acidosis, diabetes, gout, served acidic drugs; urine pH value is greater than normal, was particularly prevalent in alkalosis, cystitis, or sodium carbonate, such as re-use alkaline drugs.
Second, sediment examination:
1, urine sediment examination:
Normal reference value
RBC 0-3 / HPF; interleukin :0-5 / HPF.
Clinical significance
Erythrocytosis was particularly prevalent in glomerulonephritis, urinary calculi, tuberculosis, cancer.
Leukocytosis general inflammation in the urinary tract.
Third, chemical test:
1, urinary protein: normal urine contain only trace protein, urine protein content of more than 150mg/24h known as proteinuria.
Normal urine protein in urine from the plasma. There are a result of glomerular filtration membrane protein control devices, tubular protein reabsorption and the role of selective than albumin large molecular weight protein molecules is limited, smaller than the molecular weight of albumin protein does passed, However, these low-molecular-weight protein by tubular reabsorption, so the normal urine protein from plasma protein albumin in the main.
Normal reference value
Qualitative: Negative.
Quantitative :10-150mg / 24h urine.
Clinical significance
1. Increased physiological
Physiological increase in pathological changes in the absence of means on the basis of certain physiological state under a temporary increase in proteinuria. Commonly found in after strenuous exercise (exercise-induced proteinuria), postural changes (orthostatic proteinuria), the body by a sudden cold stimulation, or person, such as emotional. In these circumstances, the glomerular endothelial cell contraction, or congestive heart, so that increased glomerular permeability. Such physiological protein quantitative analysis can not be too high.
2. An increase in pathological
Proteinuria pathological, clinical common diseases are: acute glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome, pyelonephritis, chronic nephritis, hypertension, kidney disease, such as benzene poisoning.
2, urine sugar:
Normal urine little sugar, urine sugar increased by more than normal is a pathological reaction.
Normal reference value
Qualitative: Negative.
Quantitative :0.56-5 .0 mmol / L ,100-900mg / (dL 24h) urine.
Clinical significance
An increase in urine sugar commonly found in diabetes, nephrotic syndrome, pancreatitis, diseases such as acromegaly.
3, bilirubin:
Normal reference value
Qualitative: Negative.
Clinical significance
Bilirubin positive substance commonly found in liver disease or obstructive jaundice.

Knee pain

In fact, knee pain is a common phenomenon. Studies have shown that there are many factors resulting in women than in men more vulnerable to knee injuries.
To prevent knee problems (or recover from a knee injury) is the best way to maintain a healthy weight and strengthen knee muscles balanced reflection of the flexibility and adjustment, which can make less knee injury.
Women the most common cause of knee pain is the anterior cruciate ligament excessive stretching or tearing. Anterior cruciate ligament from the thigh into the back of the tibia in front of a short rope belt-shaped connective tissue. It prevents knee hyperextension and excessive rotation, so as to stabilize the knee. In most fitness process, the female anterior cruciate ligament injuries than the highest probability of more than twice as many men. In such as downhill skiing and gymnastics training for a class of movement, women than men vulnerable probability is increased to 8 times.
Like other types of knee injuries, the anterior cruciate ligament tear can cause obvious pain. Because the knee is the basis of our activities, so a direct impact on knee pain in people's quality of life.
Why is it that women's knees less vulnerable to damage it? In this regard, the medical profession vary. Some experts think that there may be anatomical differences caused. Women have wider hips, which has increased the pressure on the medial knee. Also the theory that estrogen and other female hormones can cause knee laxity or loose and therefore more unstable knee. There are statistics: Female athletes in the mid-point of the menstrual cycle, which is the highest level of estrogen, we will suffer more knee pain.
Another possible reason is that women in the running or doing other sports more often than men used to maintain the upper vertical position, this position makes biceps femoris not get enough stretching, thereby affecting the contraction of muscles and fat force, resulting in increased strength of quadriceps femoris dominate the situation. Running the greater the range of bending the knee, hip-led biceps femoris its greater range of movement, will be able to knee ligament and the surrounding bring more protection.
The prevention of knee problems and knee injuries to make the best way to recover is to keep a healthy weight and attention to the development of the body's flexibility and balance training and conditioning the muscles of the knee function will be less susceptible to knee injuries. The following exercises can strengthen these muscles.
Medial leg give
Start position: the left side of the body lying on the floor, hips slightly forward, right hip is at the top of the left hip. Left leg straight, natural flat on the floor. Peg-leg right knee, the inside of his right foot on the body near the floor. Head resting on his left elbow flexor and left big arm. Rotary right hand chest floor to support the body.
Action process: other parts of the body to maintain a smooth static, contraction of the inner left thigh muscle on the elevation to about 15 centimeters. Maintain the 3 seconds, and then slow to restore. Target number of one of his legs after the completion of a leg to do for another. Do 2 to 3 groups, each 15 times, alternating legs about to do.
Raise the degree of difficulty of the method: When the leg in action when the highest upward leg 4 to 8 times (do not fall), and then restored, then the next action.
Straight leg lift to adequate
Start position: sitting on the floor, his left leg straight in front of the body, toes up, his right foot flat on the floor, bending his right leg. Keep straight trunk and abdominal contraction, the body tilted backwards, hands in the post-up and focus on the forearm. Gently reminded by the left toes outward hip rotation, so toes point to dial on the 11 o'clock direction (right leg to do action, the location of his right foot to 1:00 direction).
Action process: tension left quadriceps and lifted his left leg and right knee until the same high. Hold the position for 3 seconds, and then gradually revert to the starting position. After all the number of his left leg after his right leg for doing this as a group. Do 2 groups, each 15 times.
Raise the degree of difficulty of the method: when the body upright exercise, to hold fast to his right knee in the chest.
Knee extension
Start position: sitting on the floor with his legs before平伸in vivo, and two towels rolled up, a pressure of a stacked in the left below-knee. Keep torso straight, crosstraining, freeclimber backward tilt the body and the body with a forearm support.
Action process: the left foot back up, the left quadriceps muscle tension so that the legs straight, knees pressure to force a towel, so that left the floor a little ankle. Maintain the 2 seconds, then relax. The number of his left leg after his right leg for doing this as a Group 1. Do 2 groups, each 15 times.
Raise the degree of difficulty of the method: Practice will be another leg up in the practice of ankle Department legs.
Start position: lie face down in the Leg cite machine, elbow pad on his arm. Gently hold the handle, slightly down resumption jaw, crosstraining, freeclimber, back straight.
Action process: Bend your legs up so near the ankle to hip. When bending the knee to 90 degrees when the stop, when the calf and more or less vertical floor, and then restore. To do with middle-weight group 1, 15 times; and then use the upper-middle weight so Group 1, 12 ~ 15 times.
One-leg balance