Symptoms of bronchitis

Bronchitis is a virus or bacterial infection, physical, chemical or allergic reactions such as stimulation of bronchial mucosal damage caused by inflammation, often occurred in the cold season or when sudden changes in temperature. Acute bronchitis in general more acute onset, short duration, 1-3 weeks at many a turn for the better, evolving into chronic bronchitis. Many chronic bronchitis in the elderly hair, prevalence rate of over 50 years of age to 10-15%, but also because of infection or infections are caused. Clinical manifestations were more than two years in a row, continuing for more than three months each year cough, sputum or asthma situation. Mild early symptoms, many attacks in the winter, spring beyond reach remission after the late increase inflammation, symptoms of long years of existence, regardless of the season. Chronic bronchitis by the disease can be divided into three phases:
1, acute attack period: refer to appear in a week or mucous purulent purulent sputum, increased sputum volume, or fever accompanied by inflammation, such as performance or "cough" "sputum" "breath" and other symptoms exacerbated by any of the obvious.
2, chronic delayed transfer: refers to a different degree of "cough, sputum, wheezing" persistent symptoms for more than a month.
3, clinical remission: After treatment, clinical remission, the symptoms disappeared, or sometimes a small amount of mild cough sputum, maintaining more than two months.
Acute bronchitis incidence was particularly prevalent in the cold season, because cold and fatigue can weaken the respiratory function of the physiological defense to have the opportunity to develop infection. Most healthy adults by adenovirus or influenza virus, children with respiratory syncytial virus or parainfluenza virus found. After virus infection of alveolar macrophages inhibited phagocytosis and the vitality of ciliated cells, the bacterial invasion of bronchial has the opportunity to cause acute bronchitis. At the same time, cold air, dust, gas, etc. to stimulate the physical, chemical stimulation is also easy to cause the disease. Acute bronchitis is the trachea, bronchial mucosal hyperemia, edema, mucus gland hypertrophy, increased secretions, after rest and medication, the inflammation subsided, the trachea, bronchial mucosal structure and function return to normal.
The incidence of chronic bronchitis complicated factors, according to the cause at home and abroad to investigate and experiment control studies suggest that long-term by a number of factors and pathogenic interactions, these factors include: infection, physical and chemical stimuli, meteorological factors, allergy and immune function decreased.
1. infection: chronic bronchitis are caused by a common cause of essential. Bronchitis virus since the beginning of many who suffered from respiratory tract infection caused by these viruses invasive bronchial epithelial cells and cilia, including a large number of breeding, mucosal damage and epithelial cells to lose their protective effect, which makes the original existence of bacteria in the respiratory tract such as influenza, Anopheles blood bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae have a pathogenic role.
2. the physical, chemical stimulation: Long-term smoking and air by chemical poisons, dust or harmful industrial waste gas pollution, there is stimulation of the respiratory mucosa, damaging the mucous membrane of normal cleaning and defensive capabilities, it will give rise to chronic bronchitis. According to census statistics, the long-term smokers than non-smokers suffering from the disease of chronic bronchitis, a high rate of 2.8 times the amount of smoking the greater the incidence rate.
3. meteorological factors: the cold for chronic bronchitis an important incentive to attack. Lot of elderly patients with chronic bronchitis incidence in the winter, mainly because the cold can stimulate the cilia movement weakened tracheal spasm, capillary contraction, affecting blood circulation to reduce local resistance and vulnerability to infection. In addition, the cold so that mucous gland secretion, inhalation of gas less than the wet, sticky sputum, respiratory poor, but also a predisposing factor in chronic bronchitis.
4. allergy: in particular, chronic asthmatic bronchitis and allergies are closely related morbidity. Such as dust, dust mites, fungi, parasites, pollen allergies and chemical gas would allow the respiratory mucosa edema, hyperemia and the occurrence of bronchospasm cough and wheezing.
5. decreased immune function: the disease of the elderly over the age of 50 the high incidence of respiratory tract and the elderly in this local immune defense and the relationship must have. Elderly sex hormones adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion and reduced respiratory mucosal atrophy, reduced reserve capacity of lung tissue, lung tissue decreased flexibility. These are easily lead to chronic bronchitis and recurrent reasons.